The actual nutrition of elderly and old people

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Researchers attach importance to the caloric intake in the direction of metabolism and function of aging of the organism. With age, reduce the need for high-calorie foods, which is explained by the reduction of energy costs. This situation has a number of prerequisites. First of all you should stay at the level of basic currency, which age is gradually decreasing.
The decrease of intensity of the main exchange largely determined by decrease with age, physical activity, size of the active (muscle) of body weight, the intensity of metabolic processes, activity of physiological reactions and other vital signs of an organism. A decrease in physical activity, in turn, due to the changed position of the old man in the family, the society, its way of life. In this regard, despite strong evidence of the feasibility of reducing the age of the energy value of food, the literature data on its actual values are characterized in different countries sufficient dispersion (from 1320 to 4100 kcal per day), and caloric content of food in organized groups is higher than the power in the family (Nemenowa, Pokrovskiy, 1967; Morgner, 1968; ., Hejda (1974). This, apparently, and determines to some extent the contradictions in the scientific recommendations for change calories depending on age. So, in England for men and women aged 65-74 years, the daily need for food is defined respectively in 2350 and 2060 kcal, aged 75 years and older -2100 and 1900 kcal (Durnin, 1968). In the USA for older men and women daily calories respectively 2250 and 1,600 kcal, for old - 2000 and 1500 kcal. Close to the see and the norms of the caloric intake in the GDRs offered taking into account the severity of work (Ketz, 1973). In the USSR for the elderly, set standards calories from 2350 up to 2650 kcal (b.p. The Burgasy, 1968).
Actual energy value of diets surveyed elderly and old people in General meets the requirements of gorodiatichi and fully consistent with featured in the USSR norms. However, over the average daily calorie surveyed at age 60-89 years masks considerable individual variations. For example, the energy value of food in some of the surveyed were determined in the range from 1600 up to 3100 calories and higher. Comparing the magnitude of the energy value of the actual nutrition recommended in the country, the daily energy demand, has found that 16.7% of the surveyed at age 60-89 years calorie food above the recommended norms in 42.2% - in the range of offered units and 41,1% - below them. The food of centenarians (90 years and older) was largely similar to the diet of people in the age 60-89 years, but lower in calories.
Thus, on the basis of our use of questionnaire and survey-weighting methods give a General description of how the power of the surveyed people, and the content of their rations of wide enough spectrum of essential nutrition. It must be emphasized that such a deployed hygienic characteristics of actual power in the literature available to us we are not met. A large amount of research was made possible with the development of the us special instructional techniques, in particular by using computer.
Let us briefly review the overall performance of the supply. The impression that the elderly and old people are not easy to convince that need to change their usual mode and diet. It is shown that 80% of elderly and old people retain the habits acquired in young years (Yu. G. Grigorov, V. S. Marconi, 1967), and from this largely depends on the range of products used in nutrition. In our research shows that the range of food products elderly and old people is large enough. The structure of food rations indicates a relatively high level of well-being and can identify the right ways of further streamlining their supply.
Nutrition is one of the main forms of interacting with the environment. Currently recognized the influence of environmental factors on the pace and nature of development of the aging process. That is why without knowledge of the actual nutrition cannot get a complete picture of the impact of environmental factors on the process of human aging. This is confirmed by the complex of works, which show that the power factor is essential in ensuring human health, his ability to work, adaptation to the adverse effects of the environment, causing ultimately not only the life expectancy, but also the duration of active work of the body.