The technique of estimation of factors of health and longevity

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The diversity and complexity of the problem of longevity determine the complexity of the solution. Especially great difficulties arise in the differentiation of certain factors, including social, and clarify their role in achieving longevity.
Of great value to stimulate research ideas in the development of the problem of correlation of the social and biological when studying public health has played a synthesis of the work done at a high methodological level of large Russian scientists (3. G. Frankel, 1949; B. Ya. of Malevich, 1949, 1965; G. I. Tsaregorodtsev and others, 1963, 1968; N. P. Dubinin, 1972).
In some works the significant attention is given to the detection of hereditary influences on the overall life expectancy and the development of those or other pathological processes that accompany aging.
Role of social factors and the external environment in aging and longevity and their relationship with biological factors devoted to research some foreign authors. Century great job Cohen (1964), bearing review, summarized and classified significant number of genealogical studies carried out in different countries from the beginning of XX century. An attempt was made to summarize the achieved results, in particular on the question of the influence of the family longevity in different population groups.
In the socio-hygienic aspect performed a study of the Romanian social gerontologist Ciuca (1967), which showed the relationship between natural, economic conditions and hereditary factor with physical and mental health of centenarians.
Around the same plan study was prepared on the centenary of the people of Bulgaria (Stoinev, 1972) and Hungary (Haranghy, 1965). Under the program, close to the/ which was used in the USSR, were examined persons aged 85 years and older in the United States (Rose, 1964) and the UK (Craft, Hall, 1966).
On the basis of statistical analysis of literature data and own observations Benet (1976) developed detailed (demographic, socio-psychological, ethnographical and genealogical) characteristic of long-livers of the Caucasus.
The results of the study of the link between longevity and 39 different characteristics, health status of the mental sphere, lifestyle, relationships, socio-economic status and heredity, on the materials of long-term interdisciplinary monitoring group Eggs at the age of 70 years (North Carolina) is represented in the work Palmore (1976).
An indispensable condition of progressive development of research in the field of longevity is a comprehensive study, the establishment of regularities characterizing the life expectancy of the population. In the Soviet Union gained experience in studying the impact of individual elements of the external or internal environment on the longevity of certain groups of the population. A certain role in this direction has played a study of centenarians conducted in various parts of the country. Unfortunately, social or hereditary factors were considered in a number of these works in isolation.
The attempt to combine both aspects of the problem of longevity in the analysis of materials related to long-lived people, carried out in the Institute of gerontology of AMS of the USSR joint efforts of the laboratory of demography and health statistics and laboratory genetics (N. N. Sachuk, 1970; B. N. Voitenko, 1973). The aim of this study was to clarify the relative roles of some of the parties of heredity and social environment in achieving the longevity and preservation of health to old age. The main sources of the study was to materials of the same mass examinations of persons 80 years and over who was to characterize the health and lifestyle of long-livers of a number of republics of the USSR (see Chapter 8).