Classification of enzymes

All enzymes are divided into six main classes:
Oxidoreductase - catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions.
Transferase - catalyze reactions of intermolecular transfer of chemical groups and residues.
Hydrolases - catalyze reactions hydrolytic decomposition of intramolecular bonds.
LiAZ - catalyze reactions joining groups of double bonds and reverse reactions of detachment of such groups.
Isomerases - catalyze reactions of isomerization.
Ligase (synthetase) - catalyze reactions connection of two Molecules associated with splitting pirofosfata communication in the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or similar nucleotides.
Each class of enzymes is divided into subclasses, which in turn depending on the nature of enzymatic reactions are divided into Podolsky within which numbered. The most important representatives of some classes of enzymes are shown in table (article 274). Previously, many enzymes engaged in the processes of deep cleavage organic compounds (desolata), were United under the common title of dessolis (for example, a complex of enzymes, fermentation, catalase, carbonic anhydrase and others).
Along with the common nomenclature there are standard units expression of activity of enzymes: one unit (E) any enzyme is the amount of an enzyme that under given conditions catalyzes the conversion 1 mmol of the substrate in 1 minute; the concentration of the solution enzymes are given in units of activity in 1 ml of solution; the molecular activity of the enzyme represents the number of molecules of substrate (or equivalents affected groups), turn 1 minute single enzyme molecule.
Enzymatic reactions as normal chemical reactions, accelerated with increasing temperature. Temperature optimum action of enzymes is in the range of 40-60 degrees. At higher temperatures, usually inactivation of enzymes. Some enzymes quite resistant to high temperatures, for example ribonuclease withstands temperatures up to 100 degrees. Enzymes are the maximum activity only at a certain value of pH. The activity of enzymes is inhibited by substances called inhibitors (see). The action of inhibitors may be reversible when the activity of enzymes is restored when deleting inhibitor, and irreversible when deleting an inhibitor of the enzyme activity was practically restored.
Enzymes are localized in certain cellular structures. Structural organization of enzyme systems provides a sequence of enzymatic reactions and certain speed of the process as a whole. For normal functioning of the enzyme system requires that the activity of all its member enzymes was optimal. If one of the enzymes for one reason or another, will reduce their activity or falls out of the system, disturbed activity throughout enzyme system in General, which can cause a disease of the whole body. Hence the importance for the diagnosis of diseases of determination of activity and number of enzymes. In clinical practice the study of enzymes great importance. The most extensive study are enzymes serum or plasma and whole blood.
Modify enzyme spectrum" blood is due to the increase (hyperfermentemia), decrease (gipermagniemia) or the appearance of blood enzymes that are missing in the blood of a healthy person (diferentele). The appearance in the blood of non-specific enzymes may be the result of violation of the permeability of biological membranes, cell disruption or the protective reactions of the organism.