Filaretos

Filaretos is helminthiasis, common in countries with warm, humid climates (Africa, tropical Asia, Central and South America). In the USSR are not met.
Pathogens - round thread-like worms (nematodes) suborder Filariata. Adult filaria inhabited by man in the lymph vessels and tissues of internal organs, larvae (presented) in blood or thicker skin. Infection occurs when a person bite-sucking insect sucked the blood of the patient with the microfilariae.
Wuchereria and Bruges. The causative agent of wuchereria - Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia - Brugia malayi. Adult parasites live in the lymph nodes and vessels, are presented in blood. The day of the presented accumulate in the blood vessels of the lungs, the night come in the peripheral blood. Vector - mosquito (Culex, Mansonia, Anopheles, Aedes), attackers usually per person per night. Live adult filaria to 17 years, larva is about 70 days.
In early stage disease is dominated by fever, urticaria, limphangit, bronchopneumonia. In 2-7 years develops varicose simpaticas vessels, a gap which can lead to the introduction of lymph in the kidneys and bladder, gastrointestinal tract, the abdomen, the scrotum. In the late stage occurs elephantiasis (see), usually the lower limbs and genitals (Fig. 1). On the skin of the affected organs appear warty growths, eczema, trophic ulcers.
Prognosis with proper treatment favorable; in severe cases of possible full or partial disability.

wuchereria and onchocerciasis
Fig. 1. Wuchereria elephantiasis legs and scrotum. Fig. 2. Onchocercose nodes.

Onchocerciasis. Pathogen - Onchocerca volvulus. Adult parasites are located under the skin, aponeurosis of the muscles, the periosteum, surrounded by dense nodes. The presented live in thicker skin. Vectors - gnats Simulium. The most characteristic symptom of the disease - nodes under the skin in size from a pea to a pigeon egg (Fig. 2). Appear on the skin rash accompanied by fever, malaise, headache. Papules may ulcerate and the resulting sores heal slowly with scar formation. The presented often penetrate into the eye, causing his defeat with possible outcome in blindness.
Loos. Pathogen - Loa loa. Adult parasites live under the skin, body cavities, under the conjunctiva of the eye, are presented in blood. The day of the presented accumulate peripheral vessels, at night in the deep. Vectors - horseflies Chrysops. In the early phase of the disease appears fever, pain in the limbs, urticaria. Later noted itching and burning in the tissues, swelling of Kwinke. The forecast is favorable.
Manonelles. Pathogen - Mansonella ozzardi. Adult parasites inhabit the person in the mesentery and under the serous covers the abdominal cavity are presented in blood. Vectors - biting midges Cilicoides. The clinic have been little studied.
Acanthagenys. Pathogen - Acanthocheilonema perstans. Localization is the same as the causative agent of mansonella. Vectors are the same. The clinic have been little studied.
Dirofilariasis. Pathogen - filaria animals - Dirofilaria repens. Localization in tissues, often near the eye, where the parasite is encapsulated and remains live for many years without reaching sexual maturity. Can cause abscesses.
Diagnosis of filariasis is made on the basis of clinical symptoms and detection are presented in the blood. The most simple method of research - view under cover glass at low magnification microscope fresh drops of blood. To detect presented onchocercal explore thin slices of the skin.
Treatment filariasis spend darzinam (hetrazan); appointed interior in the next 10-20 days. The adult dose of 0.1 g 3 times a day for children a single dose of 2 mg per 1 kg of body weight. When onchocerciasis additionally injected antipol (suramin, Moranis) once a week in a dose of 5-10 ml 10% solution for 5-10 weeks.
Prevention. Mass treatment of patients, the destruction of the vector by processing their emergence and habitat insecticides (drugs DDT, dieldrin and others), protection from insect bites.