First aid

First aid - term implementation of preventive and curative measures required for accidents and sudden illnesses. Depending on the circumstances and the specific situation first aid can be provided by the doctors, the nurses, and in order to themselves and others, people without special honey. training. Each HCW and any medical institution, including pharmacies, by the existing RF legislation are obliged to provide first aid.
First aid is the beginning of treatment; timely and correct delivery depends all further course of the disease, and often the outcome.
First aid is necessary for wounds, bruises, fractures, sprains, burns, food poisoning, frostbite, poisoning, electric shocks, heat stroke, asphyxia, shock, etc.; in acute cardiovascular diseases, bleeding; diseases, United by common term "acute abdomen"; aggrieved hernia, acute neurological and psychiatric diseases (acute human cerebral circulation, seizures - epilepsy, hysteria, and others), and so on
Proper organization of first aid requires constant readiness of relevant forces and means for its rendering. At the industrial enterprises of first aid should be as close as possible to the place of possible occurrence of an accident or sudden illness, for which separate most large shops are medical health units (see). In the rest of the workshops for first aid should be organized sanitary posts with first-aid kits - dressings, splints, medicines (see First aid). First aid should be provided during the whole time of work of the enterprise, its quality night shifts should not decrease.
The organization of first aid at the industrial enterprise consists of the following stages: 1) preparation for relief and 2) direct assistance.
Preparing to assist provides an advance organization of all necessary for first aid in each workshop, workshop, etc. In specially designated places (if possible, in the centre of the workshop) must always be the stretcher. In the workshops, where possible electric shock, should, in addition, bear a large rubber boots, thick rubber gloves, hook, with an iron tip and handles insulation and special pliers to release the victims from the action of the current. In all workshops must be pointers to the location of the health stations and ads telling you who to contact in case of accidents and sudden illnesses, indicating the method of communication (phone number, and so on). Preparation for assistance shall be carried out taking into account the specific production conditions in order regardless of the severity and nature of damage first aid was provided as soon as possible. Enterprises, workers and employees are trained in first aid classes on safety.
The organization of first aid in transport is built taking into account the specific conditions, depending on the type of transport. At railway stations there are clinics, one of the tasks of which is provision of first aid to passengers and train crews for diseases or accidents on the way. First aid first aid, organized in aerial, sea and river ports. In trains, aircraft, vessels must be a first aid kit that contains everything necessary for first aid.
In the preparation and in the immediate first aid is an important role for average medical personnel, which is most close to the shops and is at the scene before the doctor. The same situation takes place in rural areas and, in particular, in the conditions of agricultural production. The role of nurses is also defined by the tasks on first aid, which are entrusted to the health units (see) and health posts (see).
The important role of the nurse in the first aid in case of accidents, requires knowledge of General rules of rendering of first aid in case of accidents and the most commonly encountered unexpected diseases.
A significant role belongs to the middle medical personnel in the education of the General public in simple measures first aid in case of accidents and sudden illnesses.
First aid is provided directly at the scene using a simple honey. equipment or improvised.
The amount and sequence of measures for first aid for injuries is determined by the type of damage and its weight.
First of all carry out activities on the restoration of the vital functions of the organism - artificial respiration (see) when you stop breathing, cardiac massage cardiac arrest (see the Revival of the body). Some of the state of emergency in some cases require emergency benefits primitive living improvised tools: tracheotomy (see) with the seal of the upper respiratory tract; puncture pleura (see the Chest) when the valve pneumothorax. These activities should be carried out as extreme measures to save life and be performed by medical staff only, with appropriate knowledge and training.
First aid necessarily includes measures of prevention and control of shock (see). Fractures (see) have immobilization using standard or improvised tyre that reduces pain, protects from secondary displacement of bone fragments, the trauma of the surrounding soft tissues makes it possible to transport the victim to the hospital. Proper transport is an important moment of first aid. Patients with damage to the lower extremities is better to transport lying; with spinal cord injuries, fractures of the pelvis - on the shield back down, chest injuries in a half-sitting position.
To combat arterial bleeding use finger pressure artery, the imposition of a tourniquet (see Harness hemostatic) on a limb, strong bent legs in the joint and other
First aid for open injuries is to impose on the wound aseptic bandage. For this purpose it is best to use private dressing package (see). When you open the pneumothorax is first necessary to seal the wound closed its shell individual bandage. Aseptic bandage in fractures of the small bones of the foot and hand, broken ribs partly provides immobilization and stops the bleeding. In the scope of measures first aid also includes the introduction of anti-tetanus serum at an open injury.
In some cases, the primary task of first aid is the termination of traumatic factor: the extinguishing of burning service, the separation of the victim from the subject under shock, electric shock, remove the active substances in chemical burn or radioactive defeat, and so on First aid in case of frostbite is the fastest otografii the affected area of the body careful rubbing or otherwise. Cm. Burns, Frostbite.
First aid in case of poisoning should be aimed at removing the poison from the body of the victim or disposal of it, and on the maintenance of vital functions of organism. In case of poisoning of steams and gases, the victim must bring to fresh air; admission poison inside - stomach wash, etc.
About the organization of first aid on the battlefield - see Medical assistance, in the military field conditions. Cm. also Asphyxia, Dislocations, Bleeding, electrical trauma, PL. in volume III of Urgent treatment with surgical diseases" and "Urgent therapy for diseases of internal organs".


First aid - a set of urgent preventive measures, necessary for accidents, sudden illness and combat injuries.
In the amount of first-aid includes actions and techniques that can be performed by a person without special medical training. The timeliness and quality of rendering PP often depends on the duration and course of the disease, rehabilitation, and in some cases, and saving the life of the patient (victim). To the diseases (damage), which requires PP, include: bleeding wounds, fractures, dislocations, sprains, bruises and other injuries, poisoning, burns, frostbite, electric shock, shock, asphyxiation, in particular as a result of drowning, etc. Tasks first aid: 1) remove the victim from the situation that caused the accident (for example, to remove it from the rubble), to terminate the harmful factor (to give access to fresh air in case of poisoning with carbon monoxide, extinguish flames, disable, or remove a power supply with electric shock, and so p.); 2) to resolve difficult and dangerous for the patient's condition (bleeding, asphyxia, shock); 3) eliminate the harmful influence of the environment (for example, moved into the room to warm up for frostbite); 4) assist in place specialized assistance (to make a bandage if the wound, apply a bus at fracture, drag limb if bleeding).
Existing in the USSR legislation, first aid must each health worker and any medical institution, including pharmacies.
In the cities to provide assistance in case of accidents (street of the disaster, heavy wounds, burns, falls from heights, electric shock and lightning, heat and sunstroke, poisoning poisons, including carbon monoxide, asphyxia drowned, extracted from the water, and sudden illnesses, if they appeared at the enterprise, in establishment, on the street, in public places) is called the ambulance. With severe illness at home during the day called the doctor polyclinic, and at night - a doctor of the district emergency room (see emergency and First aid).
In rural areas in such cases, refer to the medical professionals nearest health facilities (district hospitals, rural health post).
Some industrial enterprises, agriculture, fisheries, timber workers are dispersed groups at a considerable distance from each other and from medical institutions. In this regard, specially trained inactivity organize sanitary posts, where the victims should be provided p.p. In the conduct of sanitary posts there are medkits PP (dressings, splints, medicines), stretchers and other
Enterprises, workers and employees are trained to provide p.p. in the classroom on safety.
On the beaches for rendering first aid to people in distress in the water, are properly equipped with water-rescue station and rescue posts that are specially trained and trained swimmers. Skills in providing PP brought up from childhood, back in the pioneer organization in the school. The broader population study simplest measures on rendering first medical p.p. and means of providing self-help and mutual aid in case of accidents and diseases. The organization of such activities is the responsibility of the red cross and red Crescent societies, DOSAAF. Serves the same purpose sanitary-educational propaganda.
About the organization p.p. on the battlefield see Health care in the military field conditions).