Fish

Fish aquatic vertebrates; widely distributed in almost all waters of the globe. Lifestyle fish linked to their biological features: the organs of movement - fins, respiratory organs - the gills, there is a special body - the swim bladder; fertilization most fish external: females spawn that male pours seminal fluid. In all there (along with fossil) about 25 thousand species of fish; in the USSR is about 1400.
Fish are mainly used as food. In this regard, they can be a source of human infection with parasitic worms and some bacterial pathogens of diseases, as well as a source of food poisoning. The most dangerous for human difillobotrios (see), opisthorchiasis (see), at klonorhoz (see), metagonimus (see). From pathogenic bacteria especially dangerous pathogens botulism (see), Salmonella (see) and other food-related disease (see), the causative agent of erysipeloid (see). From eating poisonous fish are connected and some food poisoning non-bacterial nature (see Poisonous animals).
Fish as food. Fish on the nutritional value is not inferior to the meat of animals and is a source of full proteins, fats, vitamins (A, D, and others), a set of microelements (zinc, iodine and others) and minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, which are contained in it in a favorable for the body ratio. The content of digestible nutrients in edible parts of some fishes and their caloric content are shown in table.

The content of protein and fat and caloric content of edible portion of fish

Name of product Content in g per 100 g Calories (large) 100 g edible portion of the product product
proteins fats
Red fish:
Beluga gutted, without heads
Russian sturgeon gutted, without heads
Stellate gutted, without heads
Ordinary fish:
Carp pond intact
Bream average intact
Carp intact
Sudak intact
Pike intact
Saltwater fish:
Cod gutted, without heads
Perch of small sea, intact
Herring:
Atlantic herring intact, spring
Herring Pacific intact, spring

14,3
13,8
14,5

13,5
15,3
15,4
16,8
15,9

19,5
15,0

16,0
18,0

6,6
10,2
11,2

3,4
4,0
2,5
0,7
0,6

0,6
5,5

5,8
8,2

120
151
164

87
100
86
72
71

85
113

119
150

The chemical composition of fish unstable and varies depending on feed resources, time of year and other High indicators of nutritional value are characterized by sturgeon fish. The fat content of fish divided into fat, average fat and skinny. Most lean fish is cod, perch and pike.
Squirrel fish have high content of amino acids such as methionine and lysine, tryptophan and arginine is necessary for the growth and development of the organism. Fats fish have high biological activity. Fish oil, especially liver fat, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, including essential arachidonic acid, and vitamins a and D2: 1 g medical fish oil contains vitamin a 350 IU (international units) and vitamin D2 30 ME (see Medical fat). Fish meat contains small amounts of b vitamins Century
Fish refers to the perishable products (see), which requires compliance with strict sanitary regime in the process of storage, transportation and realization. This is due to peculiarities of the structure of its tissues and organs. The location of the intestines along the entire hull, the lack of a dense connective tissue intermuscular shells, the presence of mucus on the surface of fresh fish, high humidity and soft tissues their structure contribute to the development of microorganisms and fast spread within the muscle tissue as from the surface, and from the bowel. Main condition of provision of high quality fish is rapid cooling after her catch and further saving in refrigerated (frozen). To do this, use the special court - refrigerators. In addition, part of the catch is immediately processed (Ambassador, canning and others) special courts-hatcheries, accompanying fishing fleet. From processed fish species require special attention hot-smoked fish.
Retention hot-smoked fish is strictly limited. In the trade network at a temperature of no higher than 8 degrees of storage hot-smoked fish in no more than 72 hours.
At infringement of sanitary regime of processing, storage and marketing of fish can be a cause of food poisoning. In this regard, sanitary measures at all stages of promotion of fish to the consumer should be conducted with the utmost severity. Great attention is drawn to the continuity of cooling on the bases and in the trade network, in the absence of signs of damage, on the sanitary condition of places of storage, shops processing and fish trade.