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Physiological "athlete's heart"

A detailed examination of all issues related to physiological "athletic heart", is not the subject of this Chapter. All basic provisions concerning physiological "athlete's heart", or circulatory systemset out in the relevant manuals.
However, two issues still need to stop, because if you do not make clear, cannot be properly understand and evaluate the pathological changes in the cardiovascular system athlete. First of all it concerns the question of the so-called peculiarities of blood circulation apparatus of the athlete and, second, about the triad of symptoms, considered typical for a high level of functional state of cardiovascular system of the athlete and even evaluating the state of his training in General. We are talking about bradikardii, hypotension and hypertrophy of the myocardium. Some authors call these 3 characteristic syndrome "athlete's heart" [Chimeg R., 1974].
As for peculiarities of physiological "athlete's heart", that, for example, ECG athlete, reflecting the positive physiological changes in the heart, characterize sinusova aetiology, a moderately severe sinus arrhythmia (when the difference in the intervals R-R from 0.10 to 0.15), vertical or polovitkina electric position of the heart, a decrease in the amplitude, and P wave, the great amplitude of teeth, R and T, especially in the chest leads, slight lifting of segment ST above isoelectric level. When the level of functional state there were significant positive developments, which are based on the inclusion of compensatory-adaptive mechanisms of the influence of the increase of the tone of the vagus nerve, which is manifested in the negative negative inotropic and chronotropic effects.
Physiological features sports blood circulation apparatus, described G. F. lang, were confirmed in the works of the last years. We are talking about, for example, lower in athletes than those not involved in sports, minute volume of circulatory necessary to ensure the working muscles, due to better use of oxygen blood on the periphery. Of particular importance, F. lang gave to improve capillary blood flow in the heart muscle during exercise. Peculiarities of physiological "athlete's heart" G. F. lang rightly considered also the ability to increase minute volume of blood circulation during exercise is not so much due to the increased frequency of cardiac contractions, how many due to the increase in stroke volume.
Paying a great attention to the peculiarities of the cardiovascular system athlete, G. F. lang rightly said that in the chain of changes of the organism as a whole, its individual organs and systems it is only the link, however, very important.
From a brief enumeration of physiological peculiarities "athlete's heart" becomes apparent impossibility to give them a detailed analysis in this book.
As for the second question, namely three main features of a high level of functional state (bradycardia, hypotension and myocardial hypertrophy), in the light of current data, this view requires revision. These 3 characteristic believed, and still believes, the main features of a trained athlete.
First of all seems wrong to speak of a trained athlete on the basis only of medical data, for the persistence of the notion of teaching. The more you should not talk about the state of fitness of any single system or organ (in particular, the cardiovascular system), which, unfortunately, is often done. But the main is that, on the one hand, the training is not always accompanied all of these properties, and on the other hand, in some cases, these symptoms can be symptoms of pathological changes in the body.
The most permanent and mandatory feature high functional state of the heart of an athlete is bradycardia. Indeed, while the heart rate decreases, and sharply expressed aetiology (below 40 beats/min), which always raises doubts about its physiological origin, is more frequent in masters of sport and athletes of the first category, with men more often than women. However, if the heart rate athlete is less than 30-40 BPM, it must be subjected to a careful medical examination, first of all, to exclude a complete heart block or any of its other lesions.