Pathological physiology embolism

Depending on the material from which is embolus, there are embolism endogenous and exogenous origin. The former include embolism caused by particles come off a blood clot, fat and cell embolism; to the second - air, bacterial and gas embolism and embolism foreign bodies.
There are also embolism circulatory and lymphatic systems. Depending on the localization of blockage at embolism circulatory system allocate embolism small circle of blood circulation, large circulation and vascular system of portal vein.
Embolism lesser circulation is characterized by obstruction or more major branches of the pulmonary artery by clots formed in the veins of the big circle (for example, thrombophlebitis), and leads to poor circulation and gas exchange in the lungs. In the experiment blockage of a small part of the pulmonary trunk does not cause significant changes of arterial and venous pressure. Multiple embolism small vessels of the lungs or the blockage of the major branches of the pulmonary artery is accompanied by deepening and increased respiration, increased pressure in the veins of the systemic circulation, dilation of the right part of heart, the emergence of a positive public heartbeat, increased pressure in the pulmonary trunk and tachycardia. As a result of reduced blood flow to the left heart drums and minute volume decreases, there comes a steady and significant decline in blood pressure. In some cases, pulmonary embolism is accompanied by convulsions (as a result of hypoxia of the brain and reflex cardiac arrest. Hemodynamic when embolism pulmonary trunk caused not only by off from blood circulation and gas exchange some part of the lung tissue, but the reflex disorders of the cardiovascular system.
Most often, the emboli are formed in the left atrium (especially with mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation), and in the initial part of the aorta (the result of separation of thrombotic overlays valve of aorta). Particularly severe consequences accompanied embolism coronary arteries, the vessels of the brain, carotid and renal arteries, the bifurcation of the aorta and one of the iliac arteries.
Massive embolism of the system of portal vein leads to the stagnation of blood in the liver, intestines and spleen. In connection with this dramatically reduces shock and minute volume, developed tachycardia. In severe cases, the symptoms of anemia of the brain. The first breath quickens, and then stops.
When the so-called retrograde embolism embolus moves against the current of blood (for example, in the inferior Vena cava in the direction from the heart). This is facilitated by the weight of the pitch and stop or even temporary backward flow of blood increased intrathoracic pressure (for example, when coughing). When the so-called paradoxical embolism embolus penetrates through the patent oval hole from the right atrium into the left and from there into the systemic circulation.
Embolism lymphatic vessels rarely is clinically important, as the extensive network of anastomoses provides sufficient lymph outflow, bypassing the blockage.