Physical culture

Physical education (PE) is a system to promote health and physical education of people with the help of physical exercises, combined with the natural factors of the nature and measures of public and personal hygiene.
Adopted on July 13, 1925, the decree of the Central Committee of RCP(b) "On the tasks of the party in the field of physical culture" was the program of development of physical culture and defined its essence and problems. The decision of the Council of people's Commissars of the RSFSR (1928) in the country was created service medical supervision (see).
In 1931 -1932, was introduced sports complex "Ready for labor and defense of the USSR", which became the basis of the Soviet system of physical education. In the years of the great Patriotic war of sports organizations helped conduct of military training of the reserve for front and medical physical culture in hospitals.
In the postwar years, physical culture received more mass development. The resolution of the CPSU Central Committee on December 27, 1948, has defined its objectives and direction in this period.
In the resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers of 11 August 1966 on measures for further development of physical culture and sports, the task of mass development of physical training as an important educational and recreational facilities and introducing it into the life of the people.
Software and normative basis of the Soviet system of physical education is all-Union sports complex "Ready for labor and defense of the USSR" (TRP). With the first of March 1972, entered into force the new complex TRP. It covers a population from 10 to 60 years and consists of 5 stages: I stage - "a Bold and clever" - 10-11 years for boys and girls of 12-13 years; II stage- "Sport shift" - for teenagers aged 14-15;
III degree - "Strength and courage" - for boys and girls aged 16-18;
IV stage - "Physical perfection" - for men 19-39 years and women 19-34 years; V step - "Cheerfulness and health" - for men 40 to 60 years and women 35-55 years.
Each stage consists of 2 sections: a) the requirements section providing for the study of fundamental principles of the Soviet system of physical education, mastering the skills of personal and public hygiene, rules and methods of protection against weapons of mass destruction; b) the category of rules for the exercise, defining the level of development of physical qualities (strength, endurance, speed, agility), as well as exercises that promote learning skills of running speed and endurance, hops, strength exercises, skiing, swimming and other
Requirements and standards I, II, III stages of the complex are executed depending on the degree of difficulty in "silver and gold icons, IV stage -"silver", "gold" and "gold" with distinction icons. Passed the requirements and norms of the V degree get the "Golden" icons.
In the process of physical education resolve tasks of health promotion, harmonic physical development, formation and improvement of skills and qualities, sports skills, healthy aesthetic tastes, be grafted hygienic knowledge and skills.
The primary means of physical education are physical exercise, i.e. a more or less complex movements, characterized by a great variety: gymnastics (see), different kinds of sport (see) and tourism (see), sports (see), charge (see), hardening (see) using natural factors (sun, air, water).
Physical education is provided at home, pre-school institutions, school, higher education institutions. In preschool classes exercise 1-2 times a week for 5-35 minutes, morning gymnastics 4-8 minutes, daily outdoor games, sports holidays. This work is conducted by the teacher in contact with the doctor and the nurse.
The school provides mandatory physical education classes 2 times a week, in the mode of the day: gymnastics to lessons, fizkultparad, games during breaks, extracurricular sports and sports-mass work.
Classroom exercises the students are separated (according to annual medical examinations) into three groups: I-basic - healthy children or with only minor changes in health status, rather physically prepared; are engaged under the program in full scope; II - preparatory - children with minor deviations in health, with insufficient physical training; deal with some restriction of the program and with a more gradual passage; III-special - children with more severe disabilities in the state of health; are special programs with the use of Wellness and medical gymnastics.
Family should strive to facilitate the resolution of the General objectives of physical education, in an effort to teach children the habit of regular physical exercise and outdoor activities.
In secondary special and higher educational institutions necessarily gymnastics and sports-applied kinds of sports.