Fluorosis (synonym cryolite disease) is a chronic disease of the bone system developing prolonged excessive intake of fluorine and its compounds. Cause fluorosis can be high content of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of foodcontaminated fluoride, inhalation of dust containing fluorine and its compounds. The disease is detected mainly in people, a long time working with fluorides (see Fluorine).
Once in the stomach, fluoride compounds dissolve in your stomach acid are absorbed and enter the bloodstream. Then salt hydrofluoric acid circulating in the blood, begin to be deposited in the bone skeleton and teeth. In the result of soluble compounds of calciumcontained in the bones, replaced insoluble compounds of calcium and fluorine, namely calcium fluoride (CaF2), and gradually the process sclerosing bone.
Prevalence and severity of pathological changes there are 3 stages of the disease. Clinical features depend on the stage. In the first and second stages of the disease, patients, continuing to work, complain stiffness, mild pain in the spine and large joints. For the third stage is characterized by large stiffness of the spine and limbs. When surveyed in the early stages can be detected changes enamel of the teeth in the form of strips, stains, krapchatov, thickening of the bony prominence, the increased content of fluorine in the urine.
For x-ray pictures of fluorosis of bones at characterized by the development osteosclerosis (see). In stage I disease osteosclerosis detected in sternum, ribs, vertebrae, the bones of the pelvis, in the II applies to long bones, in the III - along with a massive osteosclerosis determined thickening bones and calcification of ligaments.
When detecting signs of fluorosis patient must be excluded from working with fluorides and symptomatic treatment.
After eliminating long contact time with fluorine observed decrease osteosclerosis while preserving deformations of surfaces of bones and calcification ligaments. In the prevention of dental fluorosis are important hygienic measures on improvement of labour conditions (sealing of production equipment, adequate ventilation, and others), ensuring water quality is good, and periodic medical examinations, including x-ray examination of the skeleton.
In Russia, with a developed system of preventive measures fluorosis is rare.