Fluoride (as industrial poison), F,item VII, of the group of the periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev, number 9, atomic weight (mass) 18,9984. Slightly yellow gas with a strong irritating odor; temperature boiling -188,1°, temperature melting -219,6 degrees. Connects with hydrogen with the explosion. Fluorine is a strong oxidizer, reacts with many substances decompose the water with the formation of HF.
Pollution of the air of working zone and atmosphere are possible in the processing of apatites and phosphorites in the production of fertilizers and insectofungicides, organofluorine compounds (including plastics), phosphorus, aviation gasoline, corbeille and other Poisoning possible inhalation, through the gastrointestinal tract, the skin and mucous membranes.
For acute fluoride poisoning characterized by irritation of the eyes and the mucous membrane of the larynx and bronchi, lacrimation, drowsiness, nasal bleeding. May develop acute purulent bronchitis and pneumonia, and conjunctivitis. In severe cases, pulmonary edema, and Central nervous system disorders eye movements, muscle paresis, convulsions, paralysis of the respiratory center.
Chronic poisoning fluorine, apart from irritation of the mucous membranes, sometimes with the formation of long-term healing of ulcers, characterized by the development of fluorosis (see), the defeat liver, kidneys, blood, often the development of moderate emphysema; possible development expressed the pneumosclerosis, toxic encephalitis and parkinsonizma. Hydrogen fluoride irritating to the skin, causing redness, itching, numbness, bubbles with serous content. Kremneftoristyj fluorine under similar conditions and ways receipts are slightly weaker. Volatile organofluorine compounds are very toxic (tortchen, esters forexpros and percarbonate acids, diesters ferrostroy acid fluoride arsenic and others).
The treatment is symptomatic. Acute poisoning is the immediate withdrawal of the victim from the affected area; eye irritation, rinse the conjunctiva within half an hour the water, then apply 1-2% solution novokaina or 0.5% solution dikaina. You cannot apply oil or ointment on a fatty basis.
With the defeat of the skin gaseous HF good effect gives the dive burnt area in the ice-saturated solution of magnesium sulfate, or 70% ethyl alcohol. In severe inhalation poisoning - breathing 100% oxygen or Carbogen. Further qualified medical assistance. Prevention: applying pterostichinae overalls and masks; preliminary and periodic (once in 6 months). the medical examinations. The inclusion in the dietary intake of calcium (fish, milk products) and vitamins a, C, D, P, B1. MAC hydrogen fluoride in the air of working zone of 0.5 mg/m3. Cm. also Pesticides agricultural, industrial Poisons.
The fluoride. Use of inorganic and organic compounds. To inorganic fluorine preparations belongs sodium fluoride (Natrium fluoratum, Natrii fluoridum). It is used in dentistry for the prevention and treatment of dental caries, periodontal disease, osteomyelitis of jaw-facial bones, the pulpitis and periodontitis. Applied topically in the form of ointments and pastes with white clay (0,7% solution of sodium fluoride). Applied also for the consolidation of bone fractures, diseases of bone tissue, endocrine diseases, rheumatism, epilepsy, tuberculosis. The interior of 0.01 g 3-5 times a day.
Sodium fluoride, kremneftoristogo sodium and cryolite is used as insecticides.
To organic fluorine preparations are halothane (see), triftazin (see), fluorouracil (see).