Hallucinatory syndromes

Hallucinatory syndromes is a symptom of mental disorders, the clinical picture of which leading place hallucinations - perception that occur without the presence of a real object (sounds, voices, smells, and so on). Produce hallucinations visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, common sense (tactile, visceral).
When visual hallucinations, the patient can see the flames, smoke, light, objects, people, animals, insects, fantastic creatures (devils, monsters and other), whole scene (wedding, funeral, fight, natural disasters, and so on). Vision can be fixed and mobile, monotonous, and variable content. Visual hallucinations are often observed at evening and night time during the changed consciousness (delirious state).
Patients with auditory hallucinations hear different sounds or words, the talk (verbal hallucinations); they can be quiet, loud. The content of the "votes" could be different. Often the patient hears threats. "Voices" can refer to the patient or to say his actions, actions in the present and past (commenting auditory hallucinations). Sometimes "voice", I hereby order the patient to do one or another action (imperative hallucinations). The danger of these States is that patients often unable to resist "the order" and can make dangerous to themselves or others actions (to jump out the window, kill someone, and so on). Auditory hallucinations occur in an unmodified consciousness, often in silence; when a patient is alone. Olfactory hallucinations are expressed various imaginary smells, often - unpleasant. Gustatory hallucinations - feeling an unusual characteristic of this food taste or appearance of an unpleasant taste in the mouth without eating. When tactile hallucinations appear in a patient discomfort crawling through the body, stings of insects, worms. Sometimes these feelings are localized in the skin or under the skin. In visceral hallucinations feel sick in the body of the presence of foreign objects, creatures similar to real or fantastic.
Often different hallucinations combined - visual and auditory; olfactory and tactile; auditory, visual and visceral and so on, often accompanied by hallucinations nonsense, the content of which depends on the "vote" or visions (delusional nonsense). When hallucinations patient behavior is changing - they are something listen, respond to the voices" or trying to cover my ears closely scrutinize, quickly change the expression on their faces, and so on, unlike described the true hallucinations, in which the patient does not distinguish them from the real stimuli may be pseudohallucinations that patients are considered special, unnatural, "made". Some patients say that they specifically show the picture, cause images (visual pseudohallucinations), their thoughts are heard, they put "made" thoughts (hearing pseudohallucinations), and so on, Pseudohallucinations, usually combined with brad impact. Close to pseudohallucinations a sense of control of their own thinking - flows, speedup of thoughts (mantism)and visual hallucinations that occur during sleep (hypnagogic hallucinations).
Just as delusional disorder, hallucinations can be not only fragmentary, sporadic, but severe, persistent, combined with other mental disorders. In accordance with this are the following hallucinatory syndromes.
The syndrome of acute hallucinosis (visual, auditory, tactile) occurs acutely, characterized by the influx of vision or hearing, often stenopterini hallucinations or multiple unpleasant painful sensations, often accompanied by delusions (hallucinatory): fear, confusion. Acute hallucinosis usually occurs when an infectious or toxic psychosis (alcoholism!). Syndrome of chronic hallucinosis often develops after acute. Usually dominated by hearing and less tactile hallucinations. Under him, the behavior of patients more correctly, perhaps even critical attitude to these symptoms. Chronic hallucinosis develops on the background of chronic intoxications (alcoholism!), the organic, vascular diseases of the brain.
Syndrome Kandinsky - klerambo characterized by the predominance of pseudohallucinations, accompanied by delusions of physical action, prosecution. Occurs most often in chronic, rarely with acute schizophrenia.
When hallucinosis patients in urgent need of placement in a psychiatric hospital for special treatment. Particularly urgent to do in acute hallucinogen. Refer these patients to the hospital needed in an ambulance accompanied by a nurse and obligatory medical assistant. Cm. also Delusional syndrome.