Helminthological research methods

Helminthological methods of research aimed at identifying eggs (larvae) or fragments of helminths (Fig). Since the bulk of helminths person parasitizes in the gastrointestinal tract or communicating with him bodies, often exploring the faeces of the patient. Faeces should be delivered to the laboratory fresh, clean ware. If necessary, they can add fluid containing 1900 ml of 0.2% aqueous solution of sodium nitrate, 250 ml of strong Lugol solution, 300 ml of formaldehyde and 75 ml of glycerin.
For detection of fragments of worms faeces looking at the naked eye, then mixed with water and explore the small portions in a Petri dish on a dark background. All suspicious particles are placed on a glass slide into a pool of water and examined under a magnifying glass. Can the daily portion of Cala be placed in the cylinder with the addition of 5-10-fold amount of water. After mixing vessel to leave full sedimentation of suspended particles. The surface layer of a liquid is poured and poured clean water. Washed sediment looking at the small portions in Petri dishes to the naked eye or with a magnifying glass. To find the eggs used microscopic methods.
Method of native stroke. A small amount of feces from different places investigated portions pound on a slide in a drop of 50% solution of glycerine, izotoniceski solution of sodium chloride or water. The mixture is served cover glass and viewed under a microscope.
The method of ascension in Fulleborn. One part of faeces stir in 20 parts saturated solution of sodium chloride (the share of 1.18), which is added in small portions. Surfaced large particles immediately removed and the mixture is left for 45 minutes during this time helminth eggs, having a smaller share than the solution of sodium chloride, float to the surface. Surface film shoot wire loop with a diameter of about 1 cm and carry on a slide for examination under a microscope.
Method Kalantaryan. The efficiency of the method of upwelling increases under replacement of sodium chloride saturated solution of sodium nitrate. In this case the mixture stand for 10-15 minutes
Surface film, formed after settling mixture of feces with a solution of sodium chloride or sodium nitrate, can be removed and the slide. To this end a jar that particular object sticking its bloated to the brim with a mixture of stool with a solution of salt, cover the slide so that its bottom surface in contact with the liquid. After settling glass is removed and, quickly turning up the surface on which the film, looking at under the microscope.
Scraping perianalny folds (for detection of eggs pinworms and oncospheres bull taenia) do in the morning before the Commission of the toilet. Wooden spatula dampened with water, or in 50% glycerin solution, make a scraping around the anus. The resulting material is transferred to a glass slide in a drop of water or a 50% solution of glycerine and viewed under a microscope. Shpatel it is possible to replace the moist cotton swab, which wiped perianal area, well then rinsed in water. Water centrifuged and the residue examined under a microscope.
Method of Bermann (to identify larvae). Metal grid coated with 5-6 g faeces strengthen on a glass funnel inserted into the holder. At the bottom of the crater wear rubber tube with clip. Funnel filled with water, warmed up to temperature 50 degrees, so that the lower part of the grid with faeces in contact with the water. The larvae actively go into the water and accumulate in the bottom part of a rubber tube. After 4 hours the fluid put into centrifuge tubes, centrifuged and the residue is looking at under the microscope.
The method of cultivation larvae ankilostomidoze filter paper. Fresh faeces (0.5 g) smear on a strip of filter paper size 15x150 mm so that the edges of the strips were left free. The strip is placed in a test tube with a diameter of 18 mm, containing 3 ml of water. The tube is closed with a stopper and maintained at temperature 25 degrees within 5-7 days. During this time, developed from eggs to larvae go down the paper to the bottom of the tube. They are killed by heating and sediment examined under a microscope for the differential diagnosis. If a precise definition of the form of the parasite is not required, the tubes are viewing with the naked eye.
Sputum analysis, nasal mucus and vaginal secretions to identify eggs lung flukes of paragonimus, larvae Ascaris and Ancylostoma, eggs pinworms, fragments if Echinococcus bubble. Studied portion of the mucus secretions) smear on the glass and look at the black and white background macroscopically, and then under a microscope. You can add to the investigated material 25% solution of antivermin, shake well and withstand 1-1,5 hours in the thermostat to dissolve mucus. The mixture was centrifuged and the residue examined under a microscope.
Analysis of duodenal and gastric juice to identify eggs liver flukes, ankilostomidoz, Strongyloides larvae. All three portions of duodenal contents obtained when probing, centrifuged and the residue examined under a microscope. Just explore and gastric juice.
The study of tissues. To identify larvae of Trichinella pieces bioperegnoy muscles carefully split on fibrils, squeeze between the compressor glasses (thick glass with screws) and examined under a microscope with a shaded light. To identify tsistitserki muscles rasslaivath prepodovaniye needles, selected bubble clear from the surrounding tissue, squeeze between the two subject glass and examined under a magnifying glass.
A blood test (to detect larvae filari). Explore the hanging drop on top of the glass, edged with vaseline. Can 0.3 ml of blood is mixed with a 10-fold amount of 3% solution of acetic acid. The mixture was centrifuged and the residue examined under a microscope. For enrichment of drugs to 1 ml of venous blood is added to 3 ml of 2% of formalin solution or 5 times the amount of fluid, consisting of 95 ml of 5% formalin solution, 5 ml acetic acid and 2 ml of concentrated alcohol solution hematoxylin. The mixture was centrifuged, the sediment is washed with distilled water by centrifugation and examined under a microscope. To differentiate different kinds of filari explore slides stained by the method Gisy - Romanovsky.
Methods of immunologic diagnostics. Use of serological reactions (agglutination, precipitation, of complement fixation) and allergic diagnostic specimens (see) with antigens from the corresponding species of helminth.
Helminthological research methods. Fig. The eggs of helminths. 1-10 - eggs round worms (nematodes): 1 - 3 - roundworm (1 - fertilized egg, 2 - fertilized egg without the protein coat, 3 - unfertilized egg); 4 - feline roundworm; 5-roundworm carnivorous; 5-pinworms; 7 - vlasislav; 8 - Tomenko; 9 - Ancylostoma; 10 - trio-strongylid. 11 - 15 - eggs tapeworms (cestodes): 11 - tapeworm bullish; 12 - dwarf tapeworm; 13 - tapeworm rat; 14 - tapeworm Tikovenko; 15-lentetsa wide. 16 - 24 - eggs of trematodes (flukes): 16 - trematodes (Schistosoma) Japanese; 17 - trematodes (Schistosoma) urine - genital; 18 - trematodes (Schistosoma) Munson; 19 - trematodes (paragonimus) pulmonary; 20 - trematodes (opisthorchis), Siberian (cat); 21 - trematodes (clonorchis) Chinese; 22 - trematodes (metagonimus) intestinal; 23 - trematodes (Fasciola) liver; 24 - trematodes (dicrocoelium) lanceolate.