Epidemic hepatitis (Botkin's disease)

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Epidemic hepatitis - a widespread acute contagious disease. It is also called the disease Hungary on behalf of the largest representative of the Russian clinical medicine of the second half of the XIX century, which was first identified as hepatitis independent infectious disease. One of the brightest and most common symptoms of hepatitis is jaundice. So in the old days it was called catarrhal jaundice, infectious jaundice.
Epidemic hepatitis was known to humanity even in ancient times, but for a long time he remained poorly studied and it was mixed with other diseases.
Modern medicine found that jaundice as a separate characteristic can be observed in various diseases that have nothing to do with each other.
First, jaundice can be caused painful process, violating the patency of the bile duct, through which bile is secreted into the intestine. There is a "mechanical jaundice due to mechanical delays bile and penetration of it in the blood. An example is the blockage of the bile duct stone and jelchnokamenna disease, tumor or duct growing next to the tumor.
Secondly, jaundice may develop with the defeat of the liver as a result of infringement of function of bile secretion. This form of jaundice see some severe poisoning (phosphorus, arsenic and others), and some infectious diseases and often with epidemic hepatitis.
Finally, thirdly, the symptoms of jaundice can develop without liver damage and impaired patency of the bile ducts as a result of intensified collapse of red corpuscles in the blood (erythrocytes. In their decay in the blood collects a significant amount of coloring matter of bile - bilirubin. This symptom is typical for so-called hemolytic jaundice. It occurs in malignant anemia, a blood infection, or sepsis, some other diseases and poisoning.
So, jaundice can have very diverse backgrounds. In this article I will be talking only about the epidemic hepatitis, infectious disease, frequent symptom is jaundice.
Over the past decades numerous domestic and foreign scientists epidemic hepatitis, was subjected to a comprehensive study. Was the essence, studied its different forms, ways of infection, developed by rational methods of treatment and the ways of prevention.
Botkin's disease is common in all countries, in different climatic zones. During the war and post-war period, there has been almost universal, the increase of the disease. A significant elevation of hepatitis was observed in the countries of Western Europe and in the USA. In some regions and republics of the USSR, the incidence of hepatitis also kept at a high level. The hepatitis requires a lot of efforts on the part of medical science and health authorities, and the Soviet sanitary public.
The disease is to liver damage - this important institution, which are of vital processes. The liver is called the chief of the laboratory of the human body, as it plays a key role in the complex process of metabolism. Here are synthesized various necessary substances: proteins, cholesterol, glycogen, many of the enzymes and other, here is the splitting and neutralization of toxic waste products of metabolism. The liver secretes bile, participates in the act of digestion.
The value of the liver to the body vividly illustrated by the experience of the dog: the removal of this body inevitably leads in a few days to the death of an animal in the event of serious poisoning poisonous products disturbed metabolism.
Naturally, when the epidemic hepatitis liver damage that causes the violation of its activities, seriously affects many body functions and above all of the processes associated with metabolism. These disorders lead to the accumulation in the body of toxic substances, to a violation of separation of bile, indigestion, etc.
Thus, the epidemic hepatitis is common disease with deep disorder various body functions. Among these disorders violation of bile flow with the development of jaundice is not the main and obligatory. Often the epidemic hepatitis, even with severe course not accompanied by jaundice (Busselton form).
Epidemic hepatitis can occur at any age and is particularly common in children: about 40% of all cases occur in children under 6 years and 20% for children from 7 to 14 years.
After infection with hepatitis passes the incubation period lasting from 15 up to 50 days. In some cases, which will be discussed particularly, the latency period is delayed up to 3-6 months.