Geriatrics is the branch of medicine dealing with the study of diseases, of persons of elderly and senile age. Pathogenesis, clinical course and prognosis of diseases in this period of life, as well as treatment and prevention have particular in relation to age-related changes in the body.
Diseases of the nervous system normally associated with atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels. Among the diseases of respiratory organs are often found chronic bronchitis with frequent exacerbations. For a focal pneumonia elderly is characterized by atypical, sluggish during without high temperature and reactions from the blood, but with the rapid accession of cardiovascular disease. Tuberculosis develops mainly as disseminated process. Diseases of the cardiovascular system are connected mainly with atherosclerotic plaques in vessels. Myocardial infarction occurs often in erased form - with a little pain, low fever, slight changes of blood, the lack of thromboembolism and rapid development of decompensation.
The seal of the walls of the aorta and blood vessels, coming by atherosclerosis, contributes to the increase in systolic blood pressure and a reduction in the level of diastolic. With the localization process in the blood vessels of the kidney and the brain increases and diastolic blood pressure.
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and biliary tract (gastritis, peptic ulcer, cholecystitis, cholangitis, appendicitis) ions in most cases with the erased symptoms but with symptoms of General intoxication. Often develop colitis, which is explained not uncommon in this age reduced secretory function of the stomach and the weakening of the motor function of the intestine. Colitis accompanied spastic constipation, a pronounced flatulence and are often the cause of cardiovascular disorders. Functional disorders of the bowel can lead to obstruction and infringement of herniasoften occur in people of old age.
Among the diseases of the genitourinary system most common chronic inflammatory processes (anesthetic, pielit), which predispose developing in older people atrophy of the mucous membranes urinary sphincter weakness, decrease in the protective forces of the body. Men are observed hyperplastic processes in the prostate gland.
Diseases of osseous-articular apparatus in elderly and senile age is very diverse: changes in the spine, leading to the curved shear-thoracic kyphosis, and then to the curvature of the whole spine; deforming arthrosis of the joints of hands and feet with limited mobility in them. Atrophy of bone substance increases the risk of bone fractures, which are hard to heal. In people of old age are extremely rare allergic reactions and allergic diseases. Infectious diseases mostly occur in atypical, sluggish, with erased symptoms with heavy intoxication and rapidly growing insufficiency of the cardiovascular system.
During medical treatment in elderly and senile age should be taken into account that the response to the introduction of drugs they weaker than the young, slowed down not only the absorption, and excretion of drugs. Quickly develop cumulation, something to keep in mind when drugs of group digitalis. In the appointment of these funds and sedatives, pain relievers, etc. should be very careful, individually identifying their portability by assigning at first, small and medium-sized doses.
At the diseases of ageing and older persons need to reduce the period of strict bed rest. When assigning it should be easy passive respiratory gymnastics, easy massage to ensure a return to active movement regime. For the normal course of metabolic processes of the body of elderly and old people in need of increased amounts of vitamins. The complex input vitamins should be more extensive with the inevitable incorporation of vitamins C, P, and groups Century Under strict medical supervision treatment with hormones and different stimulants.
In the prevention of premature aging is one of the main places occupied correct work and physical activity, which should be alternated with a rest. Old people under medical supervision shown physical training, some kinds of sports, hunting, fishing and tourism. Mandatory 7-8 hours of sleep. Recommendations regarding the feeding: do not overeat (daily calorie not more than 2000 kcal), recommended low-fat cottage cheese, meat, fish, various vegetables (including raw) and fruit. Limit fats, salt and fluid (up to 2 litres a day). Cm. also old Age, aging.