Occupational hygiene when working with solvents in industry

Solvents in industry are used for transfer of non-volatile or volatile ingredients of film-forming substances in solutions and to dilute solution to the desired working consistence (thinner).
Used solvents in the following production: paint, footwear and leather goods (as a part of adhesives, paints and other); instrument and mechanical engineering (for parts cleaning equipment and machines from oils); in the production of organic synthesis; in the medical industry; laboratory case (when chromatography); at the fleet (as fuel and others), and so on
For hygienic estimation of the importance of the following properties of solvents: all solvents are toxic; according to the degree of harm they can be divided into four groups [according to their maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in the air of the working area of production facilities]: (a) least-toxic - 300 MPC mg/m3 and more ethanol (see) and others; b) more toxic-MAC 200-100 mg/m3 - acetone (see), butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate (see Ethers) and others; C) highly toxic - MAC 50-20 mg/m3 - benzene (see), xylene (see), toluene (see), methyl alcohol (see) and others; d) ozabochennye - 10 MPC mg/m3 and less - dichloroethane, carbon disulfide (see), trichloroethylene and other
Solvents are characterized by a high volatility and the significant speed of evaporation. The greater the volatility and lower boiling temperature, the greater and more quickly solvents can saturate the air of working premises. For determination of volatility compare how many times substance evaporates slower than ethyl ether volatility, which is taken as a unit. On the basis of volatile solvents subdivide into: a) volatile - volatility to 7 (acetone, benzene, gasoline); b) signaletique from 7 to 35 (xylene, chlorobenzene); C) tielaechi - over 35.
By boiling distinguish:
a) low-boiling - temperature boiling point below 100 degrees (acetone, gasoline, benzene); b) srednjacima - temperature boiling in the range of 100-150 degrees (acetates, xylene, toluene); C) high-boiling - temperature boiling above 150 degrees (turpentine).
Solvents, as a rule, flammable, sometimes with the explosion.
Solvents - mostly clear, colorless liquid with pleasant odor. This is essential because the appearance and the smell is not alarming, not alienate workers, but, on the contrary, the latter are getting used to these smells can feel the need for inhalation them, which in turn may facilitate entry solvent vapour in the body.
Some solvents, once in the body, are mainly drug, causing functional disorders of the nervous system (ethyl alcohol, ketones), others can cause organic disorders of the Central nervous system (trichloroethylene, methyl alcohol, carbon disulfide). Often solvents affect hematopoietic function (benzene, toluene), some on parenchymatous organs such as the liver (chlorinated hydrocarbons). Often solvents are irritating to mucous membranes, skin.
The toxic effect of certain solvents contained in the relevant articles of medical encyclopedia.
Production processes chemicals of all kinds - from baths of extraction up to spray at colouring.
Adverse conditions may arise in the preparation of solvents, spilling them, painting and drying of the painted products and other
Preventive and sanitary measures: replacement of solvent other, less toxic; monitoring of compliance with GOST each batch of paint and varnish products; automation or the most comprehensive mechanization of work with solvents.
Jobs and areas of work with solvents must be equipped with local exhaust and General supply and exhaust (General) mechanical ventilation. Workers with solvents, must undergo preliminary and periodic medical examinations. Workers should be provided with protective clothing (see Clothes and means of individual protection. All workers should be instructed on safety at receipt for work, and then at least once in six months.
Reception and storage of food in the working premises is not allowed.
The condition of air environment requires systematic monitoring.