Gingivitis is inflammation of the gums. Gingivitis occurs under the influence of local irritation of the gums and tooth stone, sharp edge of decayed teeth, overhanging the edge of the seal, poorly fitting artificial crowns, as well as under the influence of chemical, temperature and other irritants. To the common reasons include diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Especially characteristic symptoms of gingivitis when avitaminosis, for example when scurvy (Fig. 12), diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs. In some cases, gingivitis should be seen as a symptom of common diseases.
Gingivitis is most often among young (under 30). Causes of acute local gingivitis are: injury when cleaning interdental spaces, irrational orthopedic treatment, overhanging edges of seals, caries the cervical area. This inflammatory lesion gums notes or a single tooth or a group of teeth.
Acute generalized catarrhal gingivitis can be symptoms of common opportunistic diseases. Sometimes he develops on the background of acute infections. Patients complained of pain in the gums, bleeding during eating and teeth brushing, itching and pain. Patients often point to the affected area.
The General condition, with rare exceptions, are not violated. On examination determined inflammation of the gum tissue that is distributed either on intertooth gums or on the boundary and the attached gingiva. The intensity of inflammation varies from minor to sharply expressed. The swelling of the gums may be false periodontal pockets.
Gum bleeds easily when probing. There sediments in the form of Tartar, with a soft touch (or only plaque).
Complaints of patients are reduced to bleeding gums in the morning while cleaning teeth, pain in the gums, bad taste and smell from the mouth. Saliva rusty color, viscous. Characteristically, these phenomena periodically grow and disappear spontaneously. In the period of exacerbation complaints of patients increase.
gangway, hypertrophic and the ones suffering from scurvy gingivitis
There are acute and chronic gingivitis. The first in turn are divided into catarrhal-ulcer, and the second - on catarrhal, hypertrophic and atrophic. In acute catarrhal gingivitis (figure 9) gum redness, swelling at zatragivanija bleeds easily, with ulcerative gingivitis patients complain of pain when eating, bleeding gums, bad breath, malaise; sometimes temperature rises to 38o -39 degrees. Gum redness, in some parts or throughout the gingival edge is observed necrosis. Regional lymph nodes are enlarged, painful.
In chronic catarrhal gingivitis patients complain of bleeding gums while brushing teeth and eating. Gingival papillae cyanotic, edematous, bleed easily. With the weakening of the body (after a flu, quinsy, etc.) chronic catarrhal gingivitis can turn into ulcers. When hypertrophic gingivitis (Fig. 11) at the beginning of the disease subjective feelings expressed little, but in the future are bleeding, pain gum while you are eating. Gingival papillae increase in size and sometimes cover part of the crown.
Atrophic gingivitis is characterized by the decrease of gingival papillae, atrophy of the edge of the gum and exposure of the roots of teeth. The prognosis is favorable. After eliminating the cause of gingivitis, and local treatment comes complete recovery.
Treatment: treatment of the oral cavity with a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide, 0,25-0,5% solution of bleach; remove dental plaque; soshlifovat sharp edges of teeth; ulcers grease 2-3% a solution of methylene blue. Prevention: a systematic checkups and addressing the factors contributing to the emergence of gingivitis.
Hypertrophic gingivitis occurs in chronic form; may be a consequence of catarrhal. Local process typically occurs when abnormal location of the teeth, crowding them, there overhanging edges of fillings or permanent injury caused orthopedic constructions (edges crowns, clasps). Generalized process, as a rule, is a consequence of the influence of the common factors and is observed in adolescents in the period of puberty as a result of the accumulation of sex hormones growth and progesterone, estradiol, which increase the permeability of vessels, modify the reactivity of the connective tissue in response to normal stimuli.
During pregnancy this form of gingivitis develops on the background of menstrual disorders.
When taking definovan drugs (gidantoina, dilantin prescribed for trochaic and epilepsy) hypertrophy gum is a specific manifestation of their actions on fibroblasts, which leads to increased growth of gum without obvious signs of inflammation.
There are two forms of hypertrophic gingivitis - edematous and fibrous.
When edematous form patients complain of gum bleeding, swelling and increasing the size of gingival papilla. The examination helps to determine the increase of papillae with shiny, shiny surface, light bleeding, education gingival pocket due to the swelling. There are many soft plaque. With the use of additional methods of research in the gum identified various inflammation.
Patients with fibrous form complain about the unusual configuration of the gums and increase gingival papillae.
Desna looks paler than usual, dense on palpation, gingival papillae deformed, increased, not bleed. There are false periodontal pockets. Subgingival Tartar not always detected. With proper treatment and the elimination of the causative factors of prognosis is good.
If adequate treatment is not carried out, and also if there is concomitant systemic diseases, a transition hypertrophic gingivitis in periodontitis.
Hypertrophic phenomena in pregnant women are considerably reduced or disappear after delivery. In patients with epilepsy, the expansion of the gums ceases when the drug is removed, but was too areas can only be repaired by surgery.

  • The treatment of gingivitis