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Hypertension is characterized by high blood pressure that is not associated with the primary changes of the organs, and is the result of violation of the complex mechanisms of the nervous and endocrine-ferment regulation. Disorder of the regulation mechanisms can be schematically presented as follows. Dysfunction of the higher functions of the Central nervous system leads to the prevailing tone of sympathoadrenal system and reduce the functions of the parasympathetic nervous system, extending clearance of vessels. In the future join disorders regulating blood pressure side of the kidneys and adrenal glands, which secrete excessive amounts of enzymes and hormones, improves vascular tone. Deterioration of the water-salt metabolism. All these changes in the mechanism of regulation cause the increase of a tone arteries and peripheral resistance to blood flow, which results in strengthening the work of the heart, increased cardiac output and blood as a result, increased AD.
Hypertension is widespread. In economically developed countries, it occurs in up to 15% of the adult population.
The disease can cause various causes: mental injury, mental stress associated with negative emotions, closed head injury. Predispose to the disease adverse heredity, obesity, diabetes, menopause, excess dietary salt.
For the disease characterized by chronic undulating course, when the periods of deterioration followed by periods of relative prosperity. However, manifestations of the disease gradually increase, appear and develop organic changes. Hypertension can lead to a number of complications: heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney damage.
According to the degree of development of pathological changes in the course of the disease there are three stages that are preceded by an edge hypertension (labile, or transient, hypertension). Borderline hypertension is a condition where blood pressure can be within 140/90-160/95 mm RT. Art. and periodically to be normal. At carrying out of preventive measures that the state may not come hypertension.
At stage I, there are only functional disorders, HELL periodically rises within 160/95-180/105 mm RT. century and is accompanied by headaches, noise in the head, a violation of sleep. Some patients will not occur life and physical limitations. Treatment and even just rest lowers the blood pressure to normal levels.
In stage II HELL rises to 200/115 mm RT. Art., all the main complaints, characteristic for hypertension, clearly expressed. The symptoms listed for stage I, join dizziness, pain in the heart area. The blood pressure is reduced only under the influence of treatment, and not always reaching normal values. Many patients in remission continue to be engaged in intense mental and physical work and perform their duties. In stage II appear organic changes: left ventricular hypertrophy, narrowing of the arteries of the retina of the eye fundus and other
In stage III high blood pressure stand, reaching 230/130 mm RT. degree and higher, expressed organic lesions: artery atherosclerosis, dystrophic changes in many organs, circulatory insufficiency, stenocardia. Often, myocardial infarction, cerebral hemorrhage in the brain or eye retina, renal failure.
In II and III stages are hypertensive crises (sudden, drastic change of HELL), which is manifested strong feelings of dizziness and headaches, severe visual impairment, vomiting. Violation of hemodynamics you can select hyperkinetic type of crisis, when the AD is determined by the intensification of the heart and increase impact and minutes of the heart; and hypokinetic type of crisis, when the AD is due to increased total peripheral vascular resistance.