The dispute about the animal electricity

Hypnosis has been known since antiquity. Another ancient Indian fakirs hypnotized by their citizens. Scientists, doctors have become interested in hypnosis only in the end of XVIII century. At that time lived in Vienna physician Franz Anton Mesmer. He was treated for various diseases, including diseases that we today call hysterical neurosis. Came to his patients, mostly ladies of the high society. One stopped working right hand, the other after a scandal involving her husband refused left eye, the third was lost sensitivity right side of my face, etc., Mesmer has developed a unique method of treatment of such patients.
He put the patient in a comfortable chair, spoke soothing words. Then he started to do over the body of the patient as if magic motion, which he called the passes. He did like stroking the patient through the air at a distance of 2 - 3 cm from the body, moving his hands down from the head to the feet, and so on, the Patient was immersed in a dreamlike state. After a few dozen passes she felt better. Two to three sessions - and it's sane: hand work, the eye sees. To Mesmer pulled patients, it became popular. Meanwhile, he himself did not understand why the help of his passes. Developed practically this method of treatment became convinced in its reliability, and the reasons for the effectiveness of such treatment is not known. Of course, he wanted to understand her, because he was an educated doctor, not the medicine man.
In those years was rapidly developing physics, was born the doctrine of electricity and magnetism. Italian doctor Galvani said that electricity occurs in the animal organism. He was irritated by an electric current neuromuscular the drug, including it in the chain lightning rod. When lightning discharges or passing storm clouds muscle is reduced. Spending then a number of other observations, Galvani came to the conclusion that and natural muscle also occur under the influence of animal electricity, born in our body, but such a weak that existing scientific instruments it is not available. It was a brilliant guess. Today we know that the way it is. Their case Galvani argued near indirect experiences. Against him came his fellow physicist Volta, who said that no animal have no electricity. During this long dispute, occupying an honorable place in the history of science, was opened current, which was called galvanic - named Galvani, and a unit of voltage became known as the "volt". In the end, the victory went to the doctor Galvani. The justice of his additionally demonstrated in a very fine experience Italian physicist and physiologist Mateucci. The experience can be called in the full sense of the word classic.
The frog attached to cork disc, open the chest. It is visible, as is reduced heart. Placed next to the other frog, which reveal the skin on the thigh, find the sciatic nerve, cut it, and the end of a severed nerve throw in the form of loops on the cutting heart first frog. With each contraction of the heart is reduced and foot neighbor. Easy movement of nerve, even more energetic than from the movements of the heart, there was no reaction causes. It is clear that the nerve reacts exactly on electric currents arising in the heart with each contraction. That's what experiences, not having a thin recording equipment, scientists managed to reveal important patterns.