Doubt Chekhov

With hypnosis was due as much any kind of fraud that some people, even doctors who questioned his real existence. They speak no hypnosis, but there is one big sell.
Thought so, apparently, and a young Russian doctor Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. In one of his early stories "Hypnotist" he's the first person tells came in one company, where he was to show the art hypnotist. The hero of the story volunteered to be the object of hypnotic effect. The hypnotist took his hand coaxed to sleep, and the story teller sleep did not appear neither in one eye. The public has already started to make fun of inept hypnotist. Here the narrator felt in my hand a piece of paper, banknote, i.e. the hypnotist was his bribe. Then the hero pretended that he was asleep.
How much doubt, however, nor were expressed, however laughed at the hypnosis, the phenomenon is real. All the facts mentioned above represent the true phenomena. The first who gave hypnosis scientific explanation, was again I. P. Pavlov.
Describing the essence of the dream, the scientist moved to learning hypnosis and stated that this phenomenon is a partial partial sleep. The secret is obvious. However, in the future, with the revision of views on the mechanisms of sleep, a lot of things seemed clear again put a veil of mystery. Today, some experts still consider hypnosis option of sleep, while others consider it only related to sleep phenomenon, others categorically deny the relationship between these States. Whose side would we take with our readers?
I believe today that best explains the facts first point of view, coming from the Pavlovsky regiment views. After making adjustments here due to changing views on the mechanisms of sleep, we say that hypnosis is a partial sleep. The braking process thus covers the area of the daily brain (desynchronized systems) are not fully; remain active and underlying departments, usually involved in the dream state. Said define all three characteristic features of the state of hypnosis.
The first feature is the presence of rapport is connected with the fact that sleep is partial and in the daily brain remains awake "watchdog" item. Through him and out to the hypnotist. Pavlov emphasized that such items are not only in hypnosis, and brought a number of examples.
Take the mother at the bedside of a sick child, especially infants. Tired cares of the day, it may not be heard loud noises, but a small rustling coming from a sick child, lifts her to her feet.
Melnik, returning to his mill, goes to bed. He is under Hmel'kom, sleep is strong. To Wake him hard. However, if there is a change in the usual noise of the mill wheels and millstones, Miller immediately wakes up and begins to search for the cause of the trouble. You can find examples of guard posts and in animals. Flock sleeps in the valley, and the leader is on the rock and protect the sleep of their subjects. If quietly remove the leader, the herd would sleep even with a very loud sounds. However, the slightest sign supplied leader, immediately wakes all animals - they have a kind of rapport with the leader.
The second feature of hypnosis is a state of the muscles is also related to the partial nature of sleep. Hypnotized goes, performs different actions because it is not covered by sleep fronto-parietal area of the brain that controls muscle. An analogy can be found outside of hypnosis. We have already talked about the soldier, who after a few sleepless nights can sleep on the March. Another example is sleepwalking. People at night rise up in the morning and continuing to sleep with closed or even with open eyes, travels around the room. If he opened his eyes and someone standing in his way, the lunatic will bypass standing, but did not recognize him. Man is the only obstacle to the movement, i.e. the occipital visual centers of the brain are functioning at the lunatic only insofar as is necessary to ensure the muscles. In medical books you can find stories about the lunatic, which drainpipe climbed on the roof and walked along the ridge of the roof, showing unbelievable agility, then descended, came back in bed in the morning and remembered nothing about his travels. Similar observations, apparently, only one time and had taken place, but their good faith rewrite each other by various authors. Of course, the roof will climb only the lunatic, who spent her entire childhood, i.e. who has the appropriate brain Luggage. The apparent skill such verholazah explained simply by the fact that he does not understand the danger of his danger, and therefore not shaking with fear. Any of us can easily be held in his room one Board, but if it is transferred across the street from the roof of one of the 9-storeyed house on the roof of another, we will move very uncertain, to tremble and eventually can break down.
To Wake the lunatic is not recommended. It is better to give him safely back to his bed. The sudden revival may cause a drastic redistribution of processes of excitation and inhibition in the brain, man will fall and get hurt.
Does sleepwalking with the light of the moon? Most scientists such a link does not mark. Of course, one cannot exclude that moonlight can be a factor, which penetrates through polosamote ever, able to further facilitate the partial revival. More likely, however, that the name "sleepwalking" happened simply because in the moonlit night is well seen him who does the unusual walks, and in the dark it may be, too, goes, but nobody knows. If sleepwalking observed in children and adolescents, it can speak just about the increased nervousness. If sehodnia remains in an adult, it is necessary to consult a doctor-neurologist.
So, the active condition of muscles hypnotized because he fronto-parietal area of the brain free from braking. What determines the appearance of the hardening of muscles, which in the deeper stages of hypnosis causes hypnotic bridge?
In this case, the mechanism is more complex. The slowdown has affected fronto-parietal cortex, but has not dropped in the middle of the brain. Meanwhile tone, elastic and viscous properties of muscles, i.e. density them know these centres. Freed from the influence of the cortex of the brain, they perevozbuzdenie and start working at the limit. Because the muscles detect this density, which we do not see in normal conditions. A similar phenomenon can be called in the experiments on animals. Especially well it plays in cats. Under anesthesia, knowing the topography of the nerve centers of the animal, separate centers of the middle brain hemispheres. Cat like dries up: legs stretched out, the tail - pipe, and it is impossible to bend.
In the normal process of sleep man one can observe that before diving into deeper sleep, he suddenly jumps. It is possible that in this moment braking covered cortical fronto-parietal centres, but has not dropped below. The centers of the middle brain manages to "shake", but the braking covers them. Stopping the process at this stage, it would be, apparently, to get hypnotic bridge.
The third characteristic feature of hypnosis is the ability suggestions - also finds an explanation. When the hypnotist says, "You are in the garden", agitation with guard item runs on those frames brain "film", which captures seen in the life of the gardens. The man just dreaming garden, and he acts accordingly. Suggestion is not only in hypnosis. How many times fool's day, April 1, we are deceived, and we believe what we hear. Especially striking is the suggestion in the field of stage art. After all, if April 1, we cannot avoid deception because with us speak quite look seriously in the theatre we obviously know that what is happening on stage is not true that everything is "pretend". Even knowing this, we still are going through, and if the actor is a tragedian talent plays a role, and we have eyes money tears.
It should be noted that the actor himself is usually not fully transformed into the image of the stage of the hero. Part of his being an actor keeps out of the image and control himself. One famous tragedian said that if he starts crying on stage real tears, the audience starts laughing. How can self-control actor, shows an example of F. I. Shalyapin. Once he played his crown role of Tsar Boris in Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov". Came the climax is the scene of hallucinations. Tsar Boris seems murdered tsarevitch Dmitry. Then, walking back to the audience goes Boris because of the scenery: "Chur, Chur, child! No I am your pogubil". At this moment backstage passes each Chaliapin composer S. Century Rachmaninoff. And now, saying, "Chur, Chur, child!" and standing with his back to the viewers who do not see his face, Shalyapin time to show the other language. And the audience cry. Hard to find a more striking example of suggestion without hypnosis.
What explains poslegarantijnoe suggestion? It is based on the conditioned reflex. When the hypnotist says, "it will Happen-that - will do that", he closes conditional relationship. People automatically performs the specified action, then only catches on. Mechanically steps we produce very often. For example, we leave home, go down with their fifth floor, go down the street and suddenly recall: off if iron? Seemed to turn it off, but full of confidence there. Neighbors recently the fire was... back to the fifth floor, opened the door - iron off. Mentally send itself where it is, and go again to the right place.
It remains to consider the nature of the experience with imaginary burn. There is also a conditional reflex. It is necessary to understand, that is reproduced in this case, of course, no thermal damage to the skin, and the reaction of the tissue to such damage. How would we burned the skin of a corpse, no redness, no blister we do not get it. During the previous life of every person burns was accompanied by his skin reactions, and these reactions are firmly entered into the conditioned reflex connection with the word "burn", with the idea of the burn.
In hypnosis communication possible to realize this is easier than in normal conditions. Of course, if the hypnotist will meet the man, who never burns, experience does not work, and even the most skilled hypnotist get a mess and, so to say, he will burn. However, it is difficult to find people who have not had it burns so hypnotists risk a little.