Hypothyroidism - a reduction or complete loss of thyroid function. Severe hypothermia is called myxedema.
There are primary hypothyroidism associated with damage to the tissues of the thyroid gland (inflammation, tumors, state after surgical and conservative treatment of hyperthyroidism), secondary hypothyroidism due to a violation of mechanisms to regulate the thyroid gland (the defeat of the pituitary gland, intermediate brain, the cerebral cortex). In the basis of hypothyroidism can be hereditary defects in the formation of thyroid hormones.
Violation of synthesis and receipt of thyroid hormones in the blood causes the violation of protein, carbohydrate, fat, water-salt metabolism, and reduced oxidative processes and changes in the nervous system.
Hypothyroidism is characterized by drowsiness, lethargy, sensitivity to cold, dry skin, brittle nails, hair loss, swelling of the face, vocal cords (a hoarse voice), language (slurred speech). Intellect reduced. When pressed on swollen places fossa is not formed. The thyroid gland is not defined, the heart rate slows down, the blood pressure is reduced. Disturbed function and other endocrine glands (the adrenal gland, sexual glands). The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on clinical features, data research of thyroid function (see). The prognosis depends on the form of hypothyroidism, timely treatment.
Treatment - tireoidin or triiodothyronine. Tireoidin appointed interior in the dose of 0.05-0.3 g per day for adults, triiodothyronine - 25-100 mg. Overdose (pain in the heart, tachycardia, weight loss should be a break in treatment for a few days, after which the drug is prescribed in a smaller dose. The optimal dose tireoidina and triiodothyronine set individually. Conduct and combined treatment with tireoidina and triiodothyronine.
Hypothyroidism in children. Causes of hypothyroidism are intrauterine development disorders of the thyroid gland, hereditary defects of biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism in children can develop after various infections, removal of the thyroid gland. The disease may manifest in different periods of a child's life, starting from the moment of birth.
Characteristic symptoms: puffy face, narrowed eye slits, stuck nose, thick lips, opened her mouth, increased language, a short neck, dry skin, hard hair, prolonged jaundice, rough bassy voice, bradycardia, enlarged abdomen, umbilical hernia, a tendency to constipation. In the absence of treatment considerably delayed physical (Fig) and psychological development of the child.
Myxedema the girl of 9 years.
Hypothyroidism should be differentiated with down syndrome (see down's disease), the chondrodystrophy (see), rickets (see).
The prognosis is good with early treatment. Assign tireoidin or triiodothyronine. Dose of the drug the doctor picks up individually. Tireoidin appoint from 10 to 60 mg / day and more, gradually increasing until overdose symptoms (anxiety, sweating, tachycardia, diarrhea, falling cholesterol). Then the dose reduce to support. Triiodothyronine used since 5-10 mcg, and bring slowly to the optimal individual doses. Treatment continues throughout life, with the possible intervals of 1-2 days (see also Cretinism, Thyroid gland).