Plaster technique

Plaster technique - immobilization using of gypsum. The plaster bandage is widely used for treatment in the traumatology, Orthopaedics and surgery. This armband is well modeled, secure fit tightly and evenly against the body, quickly hardens, just removed and may be imposed in any conditions.
Medical plaster applied in plaster technique - aquatic sulfate salt of calciumobtained by annealing the natural gypsum stone at a temperature of 130 degrees. Medical plaster - finely milled powder white or slightly yellowish, without mixture, dry, soft to the touch, should quickly to harden and to be strong in the product. These qualities are determined by inspection, feeling and with the help of special tests. The plaster add warm water in the ratio of 2:1 to education of plastic weight, which should cure for 5-6 minutes Too fast hardening (1-2 minutes) of gypsum undesirable, as gipsovaya bandagemade of such gypsum, can harden during bandaging. Frozen mass shall hard to break, not to warm up between the toes and not to sweat. Gypsum bad grinding with impurities is sifted through a fine sieve. Slow hardening of plaster is removed by the addition of hot water or alum rate of 20 g on a water bucket. You must know the speed of hardening of gypsum, with whom we work, and, respectively, to adjust the water temperature.
The plaster bandage is put in a separate room - hipsofilas where there is a wardrobe for storage of gypsum and gipsovyj bandages, a table for preparation of plaster of Paris splint is placed, basins for soaking gipsovyj bandages, tools for removing and cutting of plaster bandages, the couch or special orthopedic table.
gypsuming and folding bandagesGipsovaya bandages are manufactured or produced on site by rubbing gypsum powder in conventional gauze bandage edge (Fig. 1). For the manufacture of plaster bandages gipsovaya bandage or plaster splint lowered deep into a basin of warm water (Fig. 2). A wet bandage determined to end the selection of air bubbles. Remove the bandage, capturing both ends so that the plaster is not leaking. Bringing together hand, wring out the excess water.
The cast impose unlined directly on the skin, covering bony prominences special cotton pads (Fig. 3); sometimes in orthopaedic practice apply a thin layer of cotton wool.
For the imposition of the cast often use a plaster splint made from 6-8 layers soaked gibsonandvega bandage. The length of the Paris splint is placed 60 cm - 1 m of Fixed Paris splint is placed giavanni or ordinary gauze bandage. Bontout without undue tension and banners, unrolling head gibsonandvega bandage circular moves in an upward or downward direction, covering the next round of bint previous round of not less than half of its width, smoothing while smoothing out the folds and tours of the bandage. All the time you need to carefully simulate wet bandage on the contours of the body. After the imposition of the cast is necessary to closely monitor the condition of blood circulation in limbs, paying particular attention to the tips of the fingers: pain, sensitivity violation, cooling, swelling, changing color from pale or blueness indicate the compression of blood vessels and the need to change the bandages.
Plaster bed is used in diseases of the spine. Make 5-6 large Paris splint is placed in two layers, each in length from crown to mid thigh and width a bit more than 1/2 of circumference of the chest. Patient is placed on the abdomen. Bony prominences protect wool, and head, back, thighs covered with two layers of gauze. Over gauze put a plaster of Paris splint is placed and well its model (Fig. 4)the manufacturer of gypsum beds. Then impose turn subsequent layers. After hardening of plaster cot removed and cut off so that the head of the patient was in her to the middle of the crown, and his ears are open; the side edges should reach scallops iliac bone and axillary hollows, but so that the motion in the shoulder joints were not limited. In the field crotch do oval cut for convenience of use of the vessel (Fig. 5). After cutting edge plaster cots are covered with gauze and RUB clean gypsum slurry. The dried plaster bed width=plaster cot inside paste over with a soft material.
Gypsum corset impose diseases and injuries of the spine. Type is determined by the corset lesion localization (Fig. 6)types of gypsum corset. Corset impose special orthopedic Desk or in a frame that allows to unload the spine and to eliminate the deformation (Fig. 7)the imposition of a plaster corset. Pre-protect jackets scallops Ilium, spinous processes of vertebra, shoulders, collarbone. For a corset use a wide plaster bandage or a specially cut Longuet; their turn impose on 4 of the reservoir behind and in front, carefully modeling. Bandage strengthen tours gibsonandvega bandage in 1-2 layers. The corset is about 20 bandages with width 25 cm Correctly imposed corset is down 3 points of support - combs iliac bone and pubis, up front rests in the chest. In the abdomen usually cut out the window for easier breathing. When applying corset-collar mouth of the patient must be open. Corset-collar cut off so that the top he ended somewhat above the nape of the neck, below the ears and chin, and below the level of the XI-XII thoracal vertebra.
In the field of shoulder girdle and armpits corset cut so that the motion in the shoulder joints were not limited.
Aksinya bandageHip, or so-called Cocina, bandage (Fig. 8) applies in case of disease or injury hip, thigh. For Kokshetau bandages need a broad gipsovaya bandages, plaster splint length of 60 cm and 1 m and cotton pillows for laying on the rump and scallops Ilium. The first 2-3 long splint is placed around the abdomen and pelvis and fix circular tours gibsonandvega bandage. Then two metre Longuet impose on the back and outer surfaces of the lower extremities to the lower third of the Shin and fix them giavanni bandage. Two short Longuet strengthen the front and inner surface of the hip joint, one of them is obliquely, forming perineal part of the dressing. Short Longuet impose front of the lower third of the thigh to ankle and back from the middle third of the leg to your fingertips. All Longuet strengthen tours gipsovyj bandages. The bandage can be made from a smaller amount of the Paris splint is placed, but using more bandages. Extra strength is required in the area of the inguinal fold, where bandages often break down.


of thoraco-bragelina bandagethe Thoraco-bragelina bandage (Fig. 9) is imposed at fractures of the shoulder joint and shoulder bones. Start with a blend of gypsum corset, then stack the long Paris splint is placed on the inside of the arm from wrist to axillary hollows with the transition to the corset. Second Paris splint is placed impose on the back-the outer surface of the hand through the elbow and shoulder joints on the corset. Longuet fix giavanni bandage and strengthen the dressing additional splint at the shoulder joint. Between corset and elbow gipsovaya a wooden stick - spacer.
circular plaster castCircular plaster cast widely used for fractures of extremities (Fig. 10, 11, 12). Circular cast imposed directly on the wound, is called the deaf plaster bandage. Along with the immobilization of fragments such bandage protects the wound from secondary infections, protects against drying and cooling, eliminates the need dressings, providing optimum conditions not only to heal the bone fragments, but also to heal the wounds of soft tissues. Deaf plaster bandage is widely used for the treatment of gunshot wounds, facilitates the transportation of the wounded and care for them.
To monitor wound or damage in circular a cast sometimes make the window - fenestrated bandage (Fig. 13). It is cut with a knife in not hardened yet the bandage at the proposed site. To facilitate cut open from the inside put a cotton pad and a plaster cast in this place make thinner. The edge of the window plaster RUB clean gruel.
Bridge dressing (Fig. 14) is a type fenestrated, when for the strengthening of dressings in the window throw a metal or cardboard-plaster arc, vgipsovannye a bandage.
Circular bandage that is exciting only one of joints of limbs, called a splint, and not at all an exciting joint - sleeve. The latter is applied mainly as a part of complex bandages.
In case of damage and disease of the joints, often knee and elbow, splint is applied (Fig. 15), which creates a complete rest joint. It should cover the upper part of the legs up to the upper third and downstream to the lower third. The basis splint serves as a plaster of Paris splint is placed on top of which bontout gipsovyj bandages.
Removable plaster bus (Fig. 16 and 17) is made from a wide plaster splint, which should cover 2/3 of the circumference of a limb. Paris splint is placed well simulated on a limb and fixed a gauze bandage. If necessary, Raskatov bandage, you can easily remove the bandage. Removable plaster splint is widely used in pediatric practice.
For the gradual elimination of some forms of deformations and contractions is used landmark bandage. There are several types of such bandage. For example, in the treatment of congenital clubfoot in young children foot maximum output from the vicious situation and it is in this form impose a plaster bandage. After some time the blindfold is removed, again removing perverse situation and put a plaster cast. So gradually, gradually changing the bandage, foot lead in a natural position. Another type landmark bandage used to eliminate contractures in the joints and angular deformations of bones, is a circular plaster bandage with a cut above the correct section. The direction of the cut should be the opposite corner of deformation. Gradually reducing the size of the cut with the help of levers, gypsum in the dressing eliminate deformation.
After the end of treatment plaster bandage is removed. For this purpose there is a special set of tools (Fig. 18). When you cut a plaster and special scissors internal branch should always be parallel to the bandage (Fig. 19). In areas with pronounced curvature is better to use the saw. After dissection of the border push and release of gypsum part of the body. The remains of plaster removed with warm water and soap.