Histamine

It has long been known that histamine is a potent stimulator of the major glands of the stomach, but the mechanism of such influence remained unclear. It performs the functions of a mediator parasympathetic nervous system, changes capillary circulation and thus the effect on the trophic processes in mucous membranes of gastroduodenal system. In recent years, the works of mainly domestic gastroenterologists have obtained new evidence of the violation of the exchange of histamine in ulcer disease (K. S. Virsaladze, and Century Gurgenidze, 1966; N. M. Mozhaisk, 1967; E. L. Revutsky and F. M. Eidelman, 1968; C. E, Kushnir, 1968; B. N. Tugolukov, 1969; L. I. Geller, 1969 and others). It was found that the majority of patients with peptic ulcer content of histamine in the blood is increased, irrespective of the localization of ulcers. Took place the degree of histaminemia on the frequency and severity of exacerbation. At the same time violate the processes linking and inaktivirovanie of histamine, as evidenced by the decrease in the blood levels of histamines and gistaminolitikov index. The content gistaminopodobnykh substances in the gastric juice in the period basal secretion increased, which was accompanied by high concentration - getidentifiermetadata in the gastric mucosa - enzyme involved in the synthesis of histamine. Direct determination of the content of the latter in the mucous membrane (L. I. Geller and E. A. Svetachev, 1967) confirmed the data Mitzui and Ogawa (1966) on increasing its tissue concentrations, to the greatest extent installed near ulcers. It is essential that the metabolic endogenous histamine took place at all localizations ulcers, while the level of gastric secretion was diametrically opposite ulcers body of the stomach and piloroduodenalnoy zone. C. N. Tugolukov (1968) suggests that histamine, acting as a chemical transmitter in the mechanism of transmission of impulses directly on secretory cell, in its excessive production and allocation of perverts secretory cycle, increases the activity of acid-peptic factor. However Watt (1962) and L. I. Geller (1969) believe that no less importance is the pathological effects of the hormone on the vascular microcirculation in the gastric mucosa. Materials show that in the period of exacerbation observed natural metabolic disorders of histamine, characterized by the strengthening of processes of synthesis and the weakening of its inactivation, accompanied by the increased content free of histamine in the blood. These violations facilitate the implementation of the pathological effects of the nervous and hormonal factors on the mucous membranes of gastroduodenal system.
Hamori (1970) attached great pathogenetic importance of local focal intramural the release of histamine. In his view, this raises the areas of destruction of mucous membrane (the"rudiments of the ulcer"), which under the influence of common disorders of the nervous and endocrine regulation of digestion can be transformed into chronic peptic ulcers. Hamori believes that histamine release is the result of trauma mucous coarse food.