The pituitary gland

The pituitary gland (glandula pituitaria; the lower portion of the brain) - endocrine gland (diameter of about 1 cm), located in the cavity of the skull, in the pit of the Turkish saddle (Fig). Above the pituitary gland covered Dura mater. The pituitary gland has a predominant influence on growth, development and metabolic processes in the body, regulates the activities of the other endocrine glands, secreting hormones (see Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Gonadotropin-releasing hormones, Lactogenic hormone, somatotropin).
Distinguish the front, back and middle or intermediate lobe of the pituitary. By the structure, origin and function of the pituitary gland is divided into two departments:
front - ferrous (adenogipofiza) and hind-brain (neurohypophysis).
the pituitary Violation function of the anterior pituitary failure of the pituitary gland or underdevelopment causes stunting of the body, changing activities of sexual and other endocrine glands.
Average (intermediate), the share of the pituitary gland expressed in humans rather poorly. In its cells accumulate protein substances.
Rear share belongs to the intermediate brain. The bulk of it consists of glial cell has (see), which concluded the bundles of nerve fibers. The pituitary gland is very rich blood supply and is connected numerous nerve conductors with a brain.
Rice (bottom view on the base of the brain): 1 - optic chiasm; 2 - internal carotid artery; 3 - funnel of the brain; 4 - pituitary; 5 - the main artery.
Especially close relationship exists between the pituitary gland and nuclei of the hypothalamus. Between glia cells and nerve fibers accumulated secret, secreted by the nuclei of the hypothalamus and entering the bloodstream. Excessive production of Nanocrete leads to increased blood pressure and accompanied diabetes insipidus.
Violations of the status and functions of the pituitary gland are caused by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of its cells, tumors and cysts. In violation of the functions of the pituitary gland develops a number of diseases and syndromes - see Adipose-genital dystrophy, Acromegaly, Pituitary, cachexia, Itsenko-Kushinga disease, Nanism.