Research methods. One of the most important symptoms of the eye is decreasing (or disorder) of view (see). Therefore, each patient complaining of vision deterioration check visual acuity (see).
Peripheral vision (field of view) is determined with the help of a special apparatus - perimeter (see Perimetry). People of certain professions (drivers, drivers trains and other) must be determined with the help of special tables the colour sensation (see). The ability of the eye to perceive light and recognize different degree of brightness is called svetoshumovye, and the ability to adapt to different lighting brightness - adaptation of the eye. Adaptation determine the special device - adaptometry. Disorder of dark adaptation (deceleration) is called night blindness (see).
Examination of the eyes begin with age. Then examine the conjunctiva of the eyes, twisting the upper and lower eyelids. In daylight, you can only detect significant changes of the cornea, the front camera, the iris and anterior sections of the lens. More subtle changes eyes can be defined in a dark room in the study method of the so-called side, or the focus, lighting. A table lamp is placed to the left of the patient and several ahead of him. In the right hand take a strong collective lens and hold it so that the focus is collected rays were on the studied part of the eye. Through another Lupu, which is held in the left hand, examine the eye. The study of the ocular fundus is carried out by a specialist using special eye is a mirror of the Ophthalmoscope (see Ophthalmoscopy). During the examination of the eye is the definition of intraocular pressure (see ocular Tonometry). For details, see the patient Survey (ophthalmic).
Often changes the eye can serve as initial symptoms of common diseases, for example, vision problems with brain tumors). Sometimes there is a simultaneous injury of the eye and the whole organism (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, brucellosis and other). Pathological changes of the eye can be caused (complications) transferred common diseases (smallpox, diphtheria). In very rare cases, and the organ of vision may be a source of disease organism (malignant tumors of the eye, cellulitis sockets). To establish the exact cause eye diseases requires a number of clinical and laboratory studies, depending on the intended disease. Sometimes produce an x-ray region of the eye cavity, paranasal sinuses, the skull. If necessary, use the consultation of doctors of other specialities (therapist, neurologist, pediatrician, and others).
Pathology. From congenital anomalies and deformities eyes are observed complete absence eyes (congenital anophthalmus), reducing the size of the eyeball (microphthalmos), the underdevelopment of the eyeball and eyelid and eye slits (cryptically and others).
Injuries. There are eye injuries industrial, agricultural, military, domestic. A special place is occupied eye injuries in children and adolescents. The reason that causes injury, there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and radiation damage to eyes.
Mechanical damage to eyes may be very diverse, from light injuries century to injuries from the crushing of the eyeball, the wound of the walls of the eye and its contents, various combined injuries of skull and eyes. Damage of the eyeball can be superficial, not accompanied through wound of the outer casing eyes that penetrate; there is also blunt trauma to the eye. They arise mainly from a blow to the eye of the workpiece, stick, jumped knot in the wood chopping, fist etc. When dull trauma of the eyes may be bleeding under the conjunctiva, in front of the camera, in the vitreous body. May occur gap iris at its root, the so-called iridodialysis, shift lens, its opacity, the gap sclera. Surface and penetrating eye injuries are applied more often cutting and piercing items that arise in the explosions, can be accompanied by introduction of foreign bodies in the conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, and when penetrating injury to the eye cavity. One of the main features of the injured eye is a pain. When surface damage the cornea is celebrated photophobia, tearing, if the damage conjunctiva possible bleeding. A sign of penetrating wounds of the eye is the relative softness of the eyeball, resulting from the expiration of the aqueous and vitreous body. Depending on the degree of violation safe outer wall of the eye wound can be SIAT, it can fall membrane of the eye, vitreous body, the lens. Often there are bleeding in the front chamber and vitreous body. When joining infection may develop purulent inflammation of the eyes - anophthalmic (see). Very serious complication penetrating wounds of the eye is a disease of the second eye is the so-called sympathetic oftalmia (see). Treatment of patients with trauma of the eyes must be done by a doctor-ophthalmologist. Treatment of patients with penetrating wounds is definitely in the eye hospitals. The average health worker in trauma eyes drops in kongungualny bag eyes of the victim 30% of a solution sulfatsil-sodium (of sulfacetamide), apply a sterile bandage on the eyes and immediately refer the patient to a specialist.
Eye burns are thermal and chemical. Thermal burns are caused by heat, molten metal, boiling water and other Severe burns can lead to necrosis of the conjunctiva, cornea and sclera followed by the formation of scar dimness of the cornea and binding between the centuries and eyeball. Chemical burns of the eye are mainly caused by acids and alkalis. Acid cause more superficial defeat, alkali profoundly damaging effect. Particularly severe burns quicklime. Of great importance in chemical burns of the eye has first aid to the victim. Need immediate rich rinsing with water. Then the eyes of the patient should be carefully inspected, necessarily removing the eyelids. If there are metal particles, lime and other foreign bodies, they should carefully remove moist cotton swab (see Foreign body in the eye). Then lay for a forever disinfectant ointment (30% sulfatsil-sodium), after which the patient is referred to an eye specialist. Eye injury, caused by radiant energy, " see Oftalmia.
The main activities for the prevention of injury to the eyes of workers of the metallurgical and metal-working enterprises, chemical plants, agricultural production - the correct use of personal protective eye goggles, air purification from dust and smoke in the shops, rational sufficient lighting, sanitary-educational work.
To occupational diseases of the organ of vision include: cataract glass-blowers, cataract in persons exposed to radioactive radiation, and nystagmus (involuntary pendulum-like movement of the eyes) in miners.
In the Soviet Union as a result of mechanization of production and a complex of sanitary-hygienic measures professional cataract and nystagmus in miners almost never met.
Eye tumors are rare and affect mainly the vascular membrane and the retina. Often they malignant (see Melanoma, Retinoblastoma).
Parasites eyes (cysticerci, Echinococcus, and others) are extremely rare. The main feature in intraocular localization is a disorder of view. The diagnosis is established after the examination (General and vision). Operative treatment. Cm. also Cysticercosis, Echinococcosis.
Severe eye diseases and eye injuries can lead eventually to atrophy of the eyeball. Eyes sharply reduced in size, shrinking. His vision is equal to zero. Often these eyes removed, with following prosthetics (see artificial Eyes).
Diseases of eyes - see the Infections, Spring Qatar, Glaucoma, Iridotsyklit, Cataract, Keratitis, Coloboma, Conjunctivitis, Pterygium, Retinitis, Scleritis, Trachoma, Uveitis, Horioidit, Exophthalmos, the these anomalies.
Operations on the eyeball - see Iridectomy, Keratoplasty.

diseases of the retina
Fig. 1. White point degeneration of the retina. Fig. 2. Juvenile macular degeneration. Fig. 3. Senile macular degeneration. Fig. 4. Discoid degeneration of the retina Kunta - UNISA. Fig. 5. Annular degeneration of the retina. Fig. 6. Racemose degeneration of the retina.