Swallowing - physiological act, providing transition food and non-food substances from the mouth to the esophagus. Swallowing referred to complex unconditional reflexes (see). For occurrence, it must result in irritation of receptors mucous membrane of the soft palate and pharynx. The stimulation of receptors on afferent paths (as part of the trigeminal, language-pharyngeal and vagus nerves) arrives in the medulla, where is the center of swallowing. From here on efferent pathways (as part of the trigeminal, sublingual and vagus nerves) excitement reaches the muscles of the mouth, palate, throat, tongue, larynx and esophagus, causing them to fall. Simultaneously with the reduction of muscles pushing into the esophagus food lump or other casually got in her mouth object is offset from the cartilages of the larynx and epiglottis; this protects the respiratory tract from the ingress swallow substances. The duration of the act of swallowing 6-8 seconds. Swallowing liquids slightly different mechanism from swallowing solids and lasts only 2-3 seconds. Various diseases of the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus, and the medulla oblongata cause a violation of the act of swallowing until its full inability (apage). A swallowing disorder can occur during anaesthesia mucous membrane of the larynx, pharynx and soft palate (the lubrication solution dikaina, cocaine) in operations and diagnostic manipulation.