Deafness is congenital or acquired during early childhood deafness and due to its lack of speech.
Mastering verbal speech in norm is based on auditory speech perception of others and follow her. If the child is born deaf or loses hearing before the speech development (up to 1 year), it loses the opportunity to master it without special methods of training. Often, even at a later occurrence of deafness (at the age of 2-3 years) it, already developed to some degree, but not enough established, is lost if not taken special measures for its preservation and development.
The cause of phonemate can be any congenital anomalies hearing body and transferred in early childhood disease, leading to deafness (see). Any pathological changes in the speech device for the deaf are not usually observed.
Recognition of phonemate is to determine the link between lack of speech and hearing disorders. In adults and older children, it is not difficult. Significant difficulties arise when diagnosing phonemate in young children. Hearing loss in infants and children preschool age is often overlooked, and the reason for asking for help is usually a delay in speech development or disintegration of speech, already started to emerge. In these cases the delimitation of phonemate from speech defects under normal hearing (see Alalia, Aphasia) is often a difficult task and requires the participation in the examination of the child doctors and teachers (otolaryngologist, neuropsychiatrist, a therapist, a speech therapist).
Treatment, prevention. Since the defeat of the hearing with phonemate is usually the result or congenital underdevelopment of the hearing organ, or complete pathological processes, accompanied by the death of his nervous system, treatment of phonemate ineffective. If a residual pathological processes in auditory organ is the treatment as directed otolaryngologist.
Fighting gluxonemoj is to prevent and eliminate the causes of congenital deafness and the development of deafness in early childhood (see Deafness), and in overcoming its consequences by special upbringing and education of children deprived of hearing. Existing in the USSR law on universal compulsory education applies to the deaf. All deaf and dumb children from nursery age, covered by the network of special institutions (nurseries, kindergartens, schools). In these institutions deaf mutes possess verbal speech, including oral form, receive General and vocational labour training. When teaching the deaf oral speech is used, the visual perception of oral speech (read lipsand finger alphabet (cheirology). As tools are involved tactilely vibratory sensation and many remains deaf ears. Deaf mutes are in the USSR full civil rights. In all the Union republics are deaf society who are working hard in training, employment and cultural-consumer services of the deaf.