Shin

The skeleton of a Shin consists of the tibia, located medial, and fibula, located laterally. Both bones in its ends are connected by joints and ligaments, and the over - the interosseous membrane (Fig. 1).
Tibia has the form of a triangular prism with well-defined edges (crests). Front crest be felt under the skin. In the proximal (top) end it has roughness, to which is attached a bunch of patella. The upper section of the tibia expanded and has two joint condyle (internal and external), articulated the upper thigh. Distal (bottom) end of the tibia is the tetrahedral form. Medial edge it goes aimed down the process of the inner ankle.
Proximal (top) end of the fibula is expanded and is called the head, the distal lower stretches and forms the outer ankle. The distal end of the tibia, inner and outer ankle articulate with the ankle bone, forming the ankle (see). Calf muscles (Fig. 2) are divided into three groups: 1) the muscles of the front surface of tibia - extensor foot and toes; 2) muscle outer surface of tibia - peroneal muscles that produce foot turn inward and bend it; 3) the muscles of the back surface of tibia - flexor tendons of the foot and toes. The most powerful is the calf muscle.
Shin

Fig. 1. The bones of the right Shin (a - front, b - back): I - fibula; II - tibial bone. 1 - external condyle of the tibia; 2 - mimedecode exaltation; 3 - internal condyle of the tibia; 4 - tuberosity of the tibia; 5 - interosseous the crest of the tibia; 6 - the body of the tibia; 7 - front-crest of the tibia; 8 - inner ankle; 9 - outer ankle; 10 - interosseous comb fibula; 11 - body fibula; 12 - interosseous membrane, 13 - front crest fibula; 14 - the head of the fibula; 15 - inner ridge of the tibia; 16 - line soleus muscles.
Fig. 2. Start and attach muscles to bones right Shin (a - front, b - rear; scheme): I - fibula; II - tibial bone. 1 - the quadriceps muscle of thigh; 2 - tailoring muscles; 3 - tender muscles; 4 - polosuhino muscles; 5 - anterior tibial muscle; 6 - long extensor of the fingers; 7 - long extensor of the thumb; 8 - short peroneal muscles; 9 - long peroneal muscles; 10 - biceps femoris; 11 - soleus muscles; 12 - posterior tibial muscle; 13 - the long flexor thumb; 14 - long flexor; 15 - popliteal muscle; 16 - paliperidonesee muscles.

The blood supply CRUs is posterior and anterior tibial arteries that originate from the popliteal artery. Same vein accompany artery and into the popliteal vein. Innervation drumsticks at the expense of the tibia and the common peroneal nerve.
Pathology. Congenital malformations of the tibia is comparatively rare, often occur congenital pseudoarthrosis (false joints).
Fractures. In the proximal end of the tibia fractures observed in one or both condyles. Fracture external condyle is often combined with a fracture of the fibula and may be complicated by damage to the close here, peroneal nerve. Under such fractures celebrated local pain, hemarthrosis knee, bending axis of the leg in the upper part of the leg. If the damage peroneal nerve foot and toes are in position plantar flexion. For further diagnosis of fracture is crucial radiography. First aid - application transport bus, fixed bandages. Fractures condyles treat plaster cast. In fractures of the condyles offset after local anesthesia and puncture of the knee joint is produced simultaneously reposition with the subsequent imposition of a plaster on his thigh and the lower leg or impose skeletal traction. With significant displacement of bone fragments shown operation.
Diaphyseal fractures of the tibia are observed in the lower and middle third; often observed fractures of both bones. While leg in the field of fracture strain; the axis of the tibia curved. Notes shortened limbs. In the distal in older children are epiphyseolysis tibia. The diagnosis to be confirmed by x-ray examination, first aid - the imposition of tires.
In the case of an open fracture of the pre is applied an aseptic bandage on the wound, then bus (usually Kramer) from the top Department of a hip on the lower leg and foot. Patients with open and gunshot fractures introduced prophylactic anti-tetanus serum (3000 AE regardless of age), morphine, or omnopon under the skin to prevent shock.
Fractures of the tibial diaphysis without offsets are treated plaster cast. Fractures of the tibial diaphysis offset is applied traction; 3-4 weeks is applied a plaster bandage, the locking of the knee and ankle joints. If resetting skeletal extension cannot shown osteosynthesis (see). Open and gunshot fractures be the primary surgical treatment of wounds, followed by immobilization of fragments (plaster bandage, skeletal traction and immediate application of, if there are no contraindications). In recent years in the treatment of closed and open fractures and false joints of the legs use the so-called Ilizarov apparatus.
In the leg region are observed hematogenous osteomyelitis (see) and false joints, often after open and gunshot fractures, varicose veins (see), and varicose ulcers, thrombophlebitis (see), erysipelas (see Erysipelas), obliteriruty endarteriit (see) and other