Fasting is the state of the organism growing in the complete absence of receipt or insufficient intake of nutrients in the body, as well as a sharp violation of their assimilation. There are the following forms of fasting: 1) absolute (without food and water) or full (without food, but water consumption); 2) incomplete (malnutrition), when the number of calories from food, less spent on energy metabolism; 3) partial, when the total caloric content of food meets the needs of the body, but some of the necessary products enter the body in sufficient number. In the development of complete starvation can distinguish three stages. The first (physiological, or relative, starvation) lasts 2-4 days and is characterized by the feeling of hunger and desire for food. At this stage, violations of normal life there. On the second ("fixed") stage activated food centers in the nervous system, and there is an increase in the consumption of internal reserves of the organism. The intensity of the basic functions of the body is reduced. Hunger weakens, there is loss in weight. When the third terminal stage of come deep changes in the metabolism and sharp oppression of all mental and physical functions. Comes cachexia (see) and death.
Limit the duration of fasting person is 65 - 70 days.
Fasting from a clinical point of view. In the clinic of starvation, first, is seen as the cause of several diseases and, secondly, is used as a remedy. Partial starvation (caused qualitatively malnutrition or impaired absorption of nutrients) is the cause of many diseases of metabolism, avitaminosis, and so on (see malnutrition, Vitamin deficiency, Depletion).
Starvation can be in patients with mechanical obstacles for entry of food in the body (such as narrowing of the esophagus, gatekeeper) and some mental and acute infectious diseases proceeding with high fever, loss of appetite.
Therapy in starvation is to eliminate its root cause, or in the artificial introduction of food. In the case of infectious diseases is not recommended forced feeding and, if there are specific, you can wait for the patient's appetite. If this precondition is the introduction into the organism of sufficient water or fortified juices.
As a remedy starvation in clinical practice can be applied at various levels of obesity, metabolic polyarthritis, diabetes, bronchial asthma and other Prescribed fasting in the form of days of discharge (see), restrictive diets (partial fasting or starvation.
At the end of fasting patients give first a small number of easily digestible, rich in vitamins and mineral salts food. Gradually, the caloric value and quantity of food increased to normal levels. An obligatory condition is the treatment of starvation (full) in hospitals, under the supervision of experienced medical staff.
Contraindications for treatment of starvation are malignant tumors, blood diseases, tuberculosis, asthma heart defects.