Voice

The voice - the audio of a person with special anatomical and physiological apparatus. There are voices speaking and singing.
In the process of development of conversational voice can be distinguished: a) the voice of newborns and infants - mainly, expressing unconditional innate reflexes; b) the voice toddlers - active speech; C) the voice of children of preschool and school age. By the end of this period is the individualization of a tone of voice that usually remains for life; d) the voice of the adults is the highest stage of the development of this unique person, features; d) the voice of the elderly - a narrowing of the range of sounds like the height and strength.
In the development singing voice can distinguish several stages: a) singing voice toddlers has a narrow range and singing practically replaced by recitations to music; b) singing voice preschool and school children - almost the same among boys and girls up to the period of "mutation"; singing voice period of "mutation" is characterized by the gradual emergence of new signs of instability, light-sensitive; to the end of "mutation" is the voice that persists almost for life; d) singing voice adult inherent in all people, but only some are suitable for professional activity. Voice power depends on the amplitude of oscillations of the true vocal cords, and the voice from joining the main tone of sound incremental tones - overtones. In singing distinguish male voice (bass, baritone, tenor) and female (contralto, mezzo-soprano, soprano). The mechanism of golosovania can be represented as follows: the vocal cords are closed, straining, and the air below them (in the trachea, the bronchi), under the action of the intercostals muscles and diaphragm, gradually increasing pressure, begins to break through the glottis. Vibrational motion of the vocal cords are transmitted on the air column in the form of sound waves, which are exposed to changes in the so-called patched pipe (throat, mouth, nose and throat, noseand perceived on hearing the sound is of a particular pitch and timbre. Voice is connected with the individual features of the vocal apparatus, age and gender.
To study voice apply the method of the usual indirect laryngoscopy (see) and stroboscopie (see).
Change the voice may be connected with the development of inflammatory or novoobrazovaniya processes in the larynx, and with impaired mobility of the vocal cords (see Aphonia, nasalized speech, Diplopedia). In addition to the normal conversational voice, distinguish whispered, lanovetskyi, the voice of laryngectomized (see Pseudopolis), voice of trewavasae. Cm. also Speech.