The border that separates the head from the neck, is on the lower edge of the lower jaw, the rear edge of its branches, the bottom of the semicircle of the external auditory passage and ends outside INION. border anatomical areas of the headBone base of the head is the skull (see). The head is divided into several areas (Fig. : I - leading, and temennykh spine; II - temporal; III - mastoid; IV - Salutna; V - facial).
The most difficult structure facial area (see the Face). In areas relevant to the roof of the skull, leather (unlike the skin) thick and dense, and, in the forehead skin is covered with hair. Under the skin lies underdeveloped fatty tissue, and under it, in the frontal and occipital areas, thin plates muscle - frontal (m. moreover,) and occipital (m. occipitalis). Their fibers become dense aponeurosis covering the cranial vault,and tendon helmet (galea aponeurotica). In the temporal area is a powerful chewing muscles - temporal (m. temporalis). The skin of the cranial vault, cellulose and tendon helmet firmly connected as if in a single layer, very loosely be connected to the periosteum of the skull. With injuries this field, if the aponeurosis not damaged, the wound is almost not there. Notable gaping wounds indicates its penetration to the periosteum. Lacerations can be accompanied by a detachment of the big flap of soft tissue or total isolation. Subcutaneous tissue of the head is rich in blood vessels, for wounds (especially cut) they stubbornly bleeding, but under a pressure bandage bleeding usually quickly stops.
The vessels of the soft tissues of the head through the small holes in the bones of the cranial vault communicate with the vessels of the meninges. With festering skin wounds of the head, there is a danger of transition infection of the meninges (via vascular anastomosis).
Head wounds to be carefully primary surgical processing (see the Wounds, the wounds), in which it is necessary to examine the bone to verify its integrity. When surface (i.e. not yawning) head wounds caused to the cutting tool, in some cases suturing is not required - the wound heals under dry bandage. It is impossible to judge cut the nature of the wound only in her mind, because on the vault of the skull contused wounds often similar to high heaven (straight edge, heavy bleeding), and when any hurt the wound is quite possible fracture of the skull (see Traumatic brain injury).
Purulent diseases of the skin of the head (cellulitis, abscesses) always hazardous, are subject inpatient surgical treatment.
On the head often atheroma, from benign tumors - lipoma (see), angiomas. Perhaps the development of sarcoma of the skin of the head, skin cancer, melanoma.