Mining industry

Mining industry - development of ore deposits with the purpose of extraction of minerals. Mining is underground (mine) or open way, which in hygienic and economically more favourable, since it is best ventilation of working areas and decreases the risk of effects on the body of dust and gases. The main production operations in the mining industry are drilling, blasting, loading and unloading operations. Loading of rocks and ore open-pit method of development is excavators in dump trucks or in special cars, dump cars; underground - in a trolley of hatches or by mechanical loading shovels, rarely manually.
The main occupational hazards in the mining industry are unfavourable meteorological conditions, the emission of dust and gases, noise and vibration, and during underground mining method is the lack of natural light.
When developing deposits of uranium ore, it is also possible impact of radioactive substances (uranium, radium, radon and its daughter products), and in some cases, external gamma radiation.
The most common adverse factor in the external environment in the mining industry is dust. The impact of dust on the working body can lead to the development of pneumoconiosis (see).
When extraction and concentration of asbestos ores (asbestos industry) in the air enters the dust with different content of asbestos, prolonged exposure to which may lead to the development of one of the types of pneumoconiosis - asbestosis. The most common way of dealing with dust content air in drilling is flushing holes with water; less frequently washing of the blast-holes Pleskachevsky solutions and dry dedusting. When other sources of dust simple and effective ways of dealing with dust content of air are irrigation, misting and hydration. Efficiency dedusting is achieved only under irrigation all foci of dust.
The use of irrigation, mist for blasting reduces the content in the air not only dust but also gases (oxides of nitrogen). For the prevention and elimination of consequences that can occur in the mine at elevated concentrations of hazardous and other gases, there are gas saving station. At surface mines in the cold period of the year and at work in the permafrost zone in order to prevent hypothermia body you must use insulated clothing and shoes; in the faces serves heated air, arrange a cab for heating. In the watery workings organize drains. Protection of workers against drops of ground waters is carried out by the device of the protective coverings in the workings of capital and the issuance of a work clothes made of waterproof fabric (see Clothes, protection at work).
In underground openings located at great depth, a fever, the degree of which depends on the depth of the mine, the temperature of rocks and ores, videobollenti mine and ventilation conditions. In such production should be submitted conditioned air.
Noise created by mining machines, transport and ventilation devices, may exceed hygienic standards. To prevent the harmful effects of noise apply proteosome (see). Adverse effects on the body of a worker may have the General (driver's cab and excavator operator) and local (perforators, especially high-frequency) vibration. Prolonged exposure to vibration leads to the development of vibration disease (see). Measures against noise and vibration should be envisaged when designing machines and process equipment operation.
As an individual means of protection of workers of the mining industry used proteosome mittens with vibrogasyaschih gaskets, respirators (see Respirator) and other
The possibility of excessive exposure of the workers engaged in mining of uranium, ionizing radiation warning by doing work at minimum surface outcrops of radioactive ores; implementation of effective ventilation of mine workings; damming of radioactive mine waters; insulation outside workings; efficient air cleaning of daughter products of radon; means of individual protection of respiratory organs.
Again coming to the enterprises of mining industry workers must undergo a preliminary medical examination; periodic health examinations are held once a year. The work of women and adolescents up to 18 years of age in underground works is prohibited. Workers in many occupations mining industry under the labor law has shortened working day and leave in 48 working days.
For early detection of pneumoconiosis should be carried out of the medical examination, x-rays of the lungs, and functional studies of external respiration of the workers employed in the mining industry. Cm. also the Coal industry.