An infant is a child under the age of 4 weeks to 1 year. The first 4 weeks of life belong to the neonatal period (see the Newborn).
For an infant is characterized by high intensity of growth and development, a significant increase in body weight, growth and improvement of all organs and systems. As a consequence, food, obtained by the infant should be high in calories. The infant there is some functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, which at the slightest error in feeding leads to infringement of processes of digestion. By the end of the first year of activity of enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract is gradually growing, which provides the digestion quite diverse food.
Anatomical and physiological features of tissues and organs of the infant and lack the ability to acquire immunity cause increased morbidity. Diseases are usually severe and often with complications are frequent convulsions, hyperthermia, and a variety of meningeal and encephalitides symptoms. For an infant is a common reaction, inclination to generalized inflammatory processes.
The nervous system. The weight of the brain at birth is the average of 390 g, and by the end of the first year of life - 950, Along with the rapid growth of the mass of brain are formed furrows and is differentiated gray matter of the brain from the white. Infants peculiar fatigue cortex, so the baby should sleep about 17 -18 hour. in the day. The newborn exist only unconditional reflexes. Since the end of the first month in children under the influence of external stimuli start to be formed conditional reflexes. The child first weeks of life, there is one main Dominanta - food.
With age quickly become complicated interaction between the cortex and subcortex and the relations of child organism with the environment.
The development of motor skills and mentality. In the first year of an infant's life gradually and consistently develop static function and motor skills (Fig). In the age of 1 month. at vertical position the child tries to keep his head, and for 2 months. already holds it well. When lying on his stomach child raises the chest. At the age of 5 months. sitting holding onto something with his hands, placed under the mouse is right, not bending the legs. To 6 months. well sit without support, rising to his feet, supported by the chest makes the first attempt to cross, enough of the subject in hand. In 7 months. creeps, she sits down, gets up on her knees, clinging to the grid beds, supported by the chest, well crosses, shifts toys from one hand to another. In 8 months. independently sits down and falls from a sitting position, get up, clinging to the barrier, making attempts to walk. In 9 months. is without support and goes well supported by both hands, sits down from a vertical position, kneeling. In 10 months. costs and rises without legs. At the age of 11 to 12 months. it goes well supported in one hand.
Parallel to the development of motor skills develop cognitive activity and speech. In 2 months. the infant appear variety of emotional reactions, smiling in response to the smile, Gulet. In 3 months the infant becomes clear to track items that captures the direction of the sound and turns his head in his direction. In 4 months the infant is well watches for moving objects, feels the breast, reacts behavior on unfamiliar face. In 5 months. I knew my mother responds differently to unfamiliar faces. In 6 months. infant interested in toys, lifts them, pushes, makes the first attempt to pronounce the syllables "mA", "on". In 7 months. many movements infants have emotional tint, it stretches from hands to hands. Repeats the syllables "BA-BA-BA, mA-mA-mA". In 8 months.- expresses the facial expressions of surprise, looking at the subject. In 10 months. starts to say the most simple words.
In 11-12 months. knows the name of many subjects, indicates parts of the body, pronounce some words.the development motility of the child
Development of motor skills of the child; 1 - newborn; 2 - child 1 month; 3 - 2 months; 4 - 3 months; 5 - 4 months, b - 5 months; 7 - 6 months; 8 - 7 months; 9 - 8 months; 10 - 9 months; 11 - 10 months; 12 - 11 months; 13-12 months.

  • Infant (temperature, chair)
  • Infant (Weight, height and urination)