Why should know blood groups?

Now back to the problem of blood transfusion. Why was the danger of this operation, carried off as often the patient's life and resulted in the death of the first Director of the Institute of blood transfusion?
The mystery was solved by science. It turned out that sudden death, coming after the transfusion of blood caused by the destruction introduced erythrocytes. They stick together in bars and die, and substances produced in this massive collapse of blood cells, poison the body.
The result is a phenomenon, like the mechanism of the attack of malaria. There malaria parasite (Plasmodium), once by the bite of a mosquito in the blood of man, is embedded in erythrocytes and feeds on their content. Every 48 or 72 hours (depending on the species of Plasmodium) mass parasites out of ruined blood cells and is embedded in another "portion" of them. Thus from the destroyed red blood cells released into the blood lot of decay products, which causes an attack of malaria.
Usually the agglutination of red blood cells in columns only happens outside the body. And the faster they stick together, the faster settle to the bottom of the test tube in which the. If 1 hour top 5 mm tubes are exempt from erythrocytes and blood enlightened say that the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is 5 mm/hour. When the body reason strengthened the breakdown of protein substances ( fatigue, pregnancy, in case of inflammatory processes and malignant tumors), erythrocyte sedimentation rate is accelerating. Therefore, the nature of the ESR is an important part of the "mirror of health", which serves for the modern doctor, the blood picture.
Why erythrocytes, vlite another person, sometimes stick together and break up in his body? This is because due to the properties blood of both people erythrocytes one of them is not compatible with plasma another. Scientists have identified four main groups of blood. People with the first group can be a donor for all other people, but to get the blood can only be from the same group I. In the reverse situation of the representatives of group IV: they take blood from all the groups and give only their group. People with II or III groups, can receive blood from I and his group; they give the blood of his and IV groups. Here is a diagram compatibility blood groups:
I group shimmers all
II group shimmers II and IV
Group III shimmers III and IV
Group IV shimmers IV
The most common are the people of I and II groups of blood. In the RSFSR (European part) I group has 35 % of the population, II group - about 40 %, III group - about 20 %, IV group - a little more than 5 %.
Knowledge of the blood groups led to widespread acceptance of the transfusion. Of course, in addition to the four major groups have to be considered and a number of other differences. In this regard, the classification of groups of blood today is very difficult. In practice, besides determining group membership before transfusion necessarily are checking the biological compatibility of blood. For this drop of human blood, which is going to make the blood is mixed with a drop of blood donor. Only the positive result of samples produce a transfusion.
In the years of the great Patriotic war, hundreds of thousands of Soviet people gave their blood for the salvation of the wounded defenders of the Motherland. While Soviet scientists have developed methods for transfusion not only of whole blood, but separately or mass of red blood cells or plasma. Moreover, were developed ways of transport frozen plasma and even dry plasma or serum (i.e., plasma remaining after coagulation). This plasma can be stored for a very long time. Then if necessary, the vial is opened and its contents dissolved in a given volume of distilled water. It turns out once again normal plasma, which is injected into a vein of the patient or wounded.