When planning and carrying out activities on primary psychological preventive measures should first of all highlight among healthy population contingent risk for mental disorders. This activity is impossible without knowledge of the causes of mental disorders, understanding mechanisms of disease and the formation of psychopathological symptoms. Domestic psychiatry at the origin of mental illness crucial gives the influences of the environment in which he lives and operates man, its beneficial and pathogenic effects on the human body and the human personality. Thus it is clear that psycho work should first of all follow the path of struggle with harmful to the Central nervous system and mental sphere.
Particularly noteworthy are the hazards that exist in the conditions of production. People working with the maximum permissible loads physical, chemical, biological and psychological nature, is exposed to the risk of disease to a much greater extent than people not associated with this kind of professional activity. From here to the contingent of the increased risk of mental disorders includes entities engaged in the production, capable under adverse conditions to harm the psychic sphere.
Somatic problems detrimental effect on cerebral activity, weakening it, breaking the brain's ability to unite and coordinate all functions of the organism. Signs of cerebral insufficiency are emerging mental phenomena, representing the symptoms of General somatic or infectious diseases. In addition, on the background of physical burdening facilitated the development of the mental illness is endogenous, psychogenic and other Persons suffering from severe somatic disease, belong to the group with an increased risk of mental health disorders.
Very imperfect and are fragile mental processes in the period of development of the psyche. The development of material substrate for mental activity begins in the womb in connection with the laying of the brain and its subsequent differentiation of the fetus. Any violation of the internal environment of the parent body is very dangerous for the fetuscould result in abnormalities and impact painful mental disabilities already an adult. The mechanism of birth can be a real problem asphyxia brain of a newborn and birth traumathat may distort the further way of the mental development of the child. The maximum interests of mother and child, systematic observation of the physical and mental development of children and adolescents is an important content of psychological prevention.
The contingent heightened risk for mental disorders includes also persons later age. When building a system of psychological prevention is important to bear in mind that severe mental pathology should not be considered inherent to old age. Secure, active, wise and enriched by the experience of old age is natural under the socialist system and way of life.
Neuro-psychiatric morbidity increases alcoholism. Alcoholism leads to the development of specific alcoholic psychosis, provokes and weight psychopathological symptoms of other diseases, causing the degradation of the personality, violates social adaptation. Alcoholism parents leads to the birth of physically and mentally disabled children. Thus, drunkenness significantly increases the risk of neuro-psychiatric morbidity of the population, and one of the tasks of psychological prevention is the fight against alcoholism and other addictions.
The increased risk mentally ill are blood relatives of a patient with schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis, and other hereditary determinirovannyi diseases. In addition to the improvement of working and living conditions, exceptions exogenous factors that can provoke endogenous disease, you need to fully expand medical-genetic consultancy, strengthening conscious citizens of our country to the issues of marriage and childbearing.
In accordance with the above listed groups at increased risk of mental disorders and should be considered priorities of psychological prevention.