Hernia is the protrusion of internal body parts or deep tissue through the holes in the cover their anatomical formations under the skin or intramuscular space. Place vyhozhdeniya hernia can be normally existing in humans holes or gaps (gap), the enlarged in pathological conditions (loss of weight, the weakening of the ligamentous apparatus) or appeared in place of the defective tissue thinning postoperative scar.
Depending on localization distinguish brain herniation (see the brain), muscle (see Muscle damage), diaphragmatic (see Aperture) and the most frequent - abdominal hernia.

Abdominal hernia

Under the abdominal hernias understand bulging viscera together with parietal piece of peritoneal through holes or abdominal wall defects, pelvis, etc. there are external abdominal hernia, when the abdominal organs go through the opening in the abdominal wall beneath the skin and internal hernia, when insides out in bags and pockets of the peritoneum. Depending on the origin hernia divided into congenital and acquired. In addition, there are hernia upraveny and nevprawima.
Openings through which overlook hernia, called gruzaviki gates. When external hernias is pathologically advanced space of passing vessels, nerves, spermatic cord, round ligament of the uterus or place of crossing of a muscle and aponeurotic fibers. These places abdominal wall are the most weak and under appropriate adverse conditions predetermine education hernial protrusion. In internal abdominal hernias gruzaviki gates are congenital defects in the folds of the peritoneum (for example, in the mesentery of the terminal segment of the small intestine; see below Congenital hernias). In addition to the hernia gate in the outer hernias distinguish hernial SAC and Grajewo content.
The hernia SAC is part of parietal peritoneum, which protrudes through Gruziya gate. In Grajewo bag distinguish the mouth, neck, body and bottom. The mouth is the place where the hernia SAC is reported with the abdominal cavity; the neck starts from the mouth and gradually expands and moves in the widest part of the hernial SAC - body, ending down. Hernial SAC surrounded outside preperitoneal fiber. Authorities are facing in the hernial SAC, called gryzunam content. They can be any organ of the abdominal cavity, often gland, a thin and thick intestine, vermiform process, the bladder wall. In cases when in the hernial SAC descends not covered by the peritoneum authority (cecum, the bladder), hernia is called moving.
Outer abdominal hernia. Characteristic outer abdominal hernia is swelling, which increases with the increase in intra-abdominal pressure (for example, when coughing). Gruzeva swelling in the supine position of the patient or with manual lumbar decreases or goes into the abdominal cavity - pravima hernia. When nevprawima hernia content remains in Grajewo bag and cannot be reset.
To study the hernia gates better patient to lay and offer him to breathe with my mouth open. In this position as finger study are easy to define the shape, size and direction of the hernia gate. In the study hernia, in addition to inspection and palpation, using percussion and auscultation, which allows to determine the nature of the content hernia: tympanic - in the presence of ulcers, blunt audio - in the presence of the seal or other neploho authority; auscultation you can hear the rumbling of contents (hernia - intestine).
Depending on the anatomical outer abdominal hernia divided into inguinal, femoral, umbilical hernias white line of the abdomen, lumbar, sciatic side, perineal, locking. More often inguinal hernia, rarely hernia white line of the abdomen and thigh, still less umbilical. Other types of hernias are very rare. The largest number of hernias is celebrated in early childhood and the people of 30-40 years. Inguinal hernia more common in men, femoral and umbilical - in women; in children is dominated by the umbilical and inguinal hernia.
Hernia diaphragm - see Aperture.
Herniation of the brain - see the brain, the Skull.