Rodents are the most numerous in number and species detachment of mammal class, whose members are distinguished by the structure of the dental system. Most rodents have two pair of cutters (top and bottom) and indigenous teeth, fangs, no. The incisors grow as they erase throughout the life of these animals. Rodents mostly eat vegetable food (green parts of plants, roots, bark, seeds, mushrooms), and small invertebrates, eggs of birds, Chicks. Rodents prolific and during the year, bring a few litters, and the intensity of their reproduction varies according to the seasons and the years. In the years of high abundance of rodents and lack of fodder marked their migration (movement in a more or less significant distances), there are also seasonal migration, for example, in autumn and winter the common vole, field mouse, mouse-baby moved from fields in the stacks of straw, accommodations etc. Among many rodents pests of forest and agriculture (rodents eat the bark of young trees, destroy grain, spoil outbuildings). In addition to domestic rabbits, there are several rodent species used as laboratory animals (Guinea pigs, Golden hamsters white and cotton rats, and others). Several rodent species have commercial value (squirrel, muskrat, beaver, water vole and others).
Epidemiological significance of rodents is very high. On the territory of the USSR more than 70 species of rodents was established carriage of more than 30 human pathogens microorganisms. Among rodents noted long-term preservation agents of many vector-borne and retransmission natural focal diseases of man (see Natural focality). In the burrows of rodents are numerous ectoparasites. In the forest zone on rodents pokarmowego the bulk of larvae and nymphs mite that causes the stable existence of the foci of tick-borne encephalitis (see), tularemia (see), tick-borne ricketsiosis (see).
In burrows large gerbils are inhabited by numerous species of fleas (see), which explains the persistence of the plague foci (see)and ticks - carriers of pathogens of tick return typhoid (see). Nora great gerbils are and lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis (see), as they are witnessing the emergence of mosquitoes (see), which carries the disease.
In many areas with rodents associated hemorrhagic fevers, listeriosis, toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis and other
Route of human infection from rodents diverse. Vector borne by (see Carriers) through blood-sucking parasites can be infected with tick-borne encephalitis, tick borne rickettsiosis, tularemia, plague, cutaneous leishmaniasis. Contact transmission possible in fisheries water vole (tularemia), ground squirrels and Surkov (the plague).
During agricultural works (haymaking and other) infection is possible leptospirosis through the damaged skin. Alimentary infection tularemia, leptospirosis can happen by eating foods contaminated with faeces rodents, as well as drinking water from wells and streams, where were the bodies of infected animals. Infecting people occurs mainly in the time among rodents are observed mass of the epidemic (see), arising from the high level of the population of these animals.
Measures to prevent and to eliminate epidemic are and prevention of possible contamination of the people. Rodent control is conducted in two directions: the deterioration of the conditions of existence of rodents (economic development, timely agricultural activities, in particular harvesting and threshing of grain crops and other) and direct destruction of rodents various means (see Deratization).rodents photo
Fig. 1. Chipmunk. Fig. 2. Gopher small. Fig. 3. Marmot - Siberian. Fig. 4. Gopher tonkopaly. Fig. 5. Beaver. Fig. 6. Forest Dormouse. Fig. 7. The black rat. Fig. 8. House mouse. Fig. 9. Small jerboa. Fig. 10. Mashevka steppe. Fig. 11. The common hamster. Fig. 12. Steppe rodents. Fig. 13. The deer mouse. Fig. 14. Muskrat. Fig. 15. The Siberian Zokor Altai. Fig. 16. Porcupine. Fig. 17. Nutria. Fig. 18. Peruvian Guinea pig. Fig. 19. The tolai hare. Fig. 20. Altai pika.