Lips

The lips of the mouth consist of skin, muscle layer, red border and mucous membranes. The skin of the lips, tight and elastic, goes in the red border, which is different from the skin thinner Horny layer and many connective tissue papillae, which contain a large number of capillaries, peaking through the epithelium, which is what causes the red color of this Department lips. The inner side of the red border enters the mucous membrane of the oral cavity.
In the skin of the lips has a large number of sebaceous and sweat glands, in the red border of a small number of sebaceous glands in the mucosa of the many mucous and minor salivary glands.
Thick lips is circular muscle of the mouth. The middle of the back surface of each lips connected with the middle of the front surface of the corresponding jawbone a small fold of mucous membrane - lores.
Lips are supplied by the branches of the facial artery. Sensitive innervation of lips by branches of the trigeminal nerve, motor - facial nerve.
Lips separated from other parts of the face naso-labial fold, Guba-podborodke fold. In the middle of the upper lip has a groove.
To congenital defects lips are cleft lip, mainly upper lip (so-called cleft lip),one - lateral or bilateral cleft of the upper lip, respectively, of the upper lateral incisor. There are cleft lip full (connection with the nasal hole) and incomplete. Cleft lip can be combined with cleft jaw, less often on the lower. The treatment of these vices surgery.
Patients with mucosal and submucosal fiber lips formed fold lips, vypyachivalis from its territory,the so - called double lip. Treatment of surgery (excision of excess tissue). The increase in the size of the lips - macrochenia is often observed in the breach of lymph circulation, in some cases there is ahalia - congenital absence of the lips.
Sometimes frenulum of upper lip is attached not between alveolar elevations of the upper Central incisors, and significantly lower, which leads to limitation of motion of lips. Surgical treatment - frenectomy (frenectomy).
The skin and mucous membranes of the lips can be affected lichen planus, lupus erythematosus, hand, foot, bubble deny, tuberculosis, syphilis and Some other types of inflammation of the lips termed "cheilitis". These include eczema, microbial, exfoliative cheilitis (Fig. 8) and others (see Cheilitis).
Boils and carbuncles, especially of the upper lip, in some cases occur very hard. Treatment should be conservative, we recommend investirovanie tissues surrounding purulent hearth of 0.25-0.5% solution novokaina with penicillin and streptomycin in combination with intramuscular introduction of these antibiotics or the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Surgical intervention is carried out at the presence of the formed ulcer; should warn against extrusion dead tissue (rods)

cancer of lower lip
Fig. 1. Cancer of lower lip - I stage; papillary form. Fig. 2. Cancer of lower lip - II stage; ulcerative form. Fig. 3. Cancer of lower lip - III stage; ulcerative form.

Tumor lips. Most common tumors of the lower lip. From benign tumors are usually more retention cysts mucous glands - spherical education elastic consistence, located under unchanged mucous membrane, with a diameter of 1.5 - 3 see rare mixed tumor. Tumors that originate from the blood vessels, called hemangiomas, of lymphatic vessels - lymphangioma. The place go red portion of the upper lip in the mucous membrane can be observed expansion of the mucous membrane in a few millimeters - papillomas, fibroma (Fig. 9-13).

tumor lips
Fig. 8. Exfoliative cheilitis. Fig. 9. Lymphangioma upper lip. Fig. 10. Papilloma upper lip. Fig. 11. Mixed tumor lower lip. Fig. 12. Retention cyst lower lip. Fig. 13. Cavernous hemangioma of the lower lip.

Treatment of benign tumors of the lips operational.
Cancer of the lips, as a rule, is located on the red rim of the lower lip. Ill mainly men older than 50 years working for a long time outdoors and exposed to constant exposure to the sun, wind, temperature changes; the smaller role of Smoking. Chronic inflammation of the red edging lower lip enhances keratinization epithelium (see Hyperkeratosis, Leukoplakia) and creates fertile ground for zlokacestvennoe. On changed part of the red portion of the lower lip seal appears tissue determined by palpation. Later happen ulceration in the centre of this area with a distinctive circular seal the edges of the ulcer. Gradually expanding, the tumor destroys the tissues of the lips, goes on the mucous membrane of the mouth, chin, the lower jaw. After 3-4 months after the occurrence of ulcers may cause metastases in regional lymphatic nodes - podporovanych and submandibular. From precancerous lesions cancer of lower lip different solid valikoobraznye edge and infiltration in the ground, from keratoacanthoma - absence crater depressions filled Horny masses, higher density, progressive course.
Treatment of cancer of lower lip depends on the stage of the disease. During the first and second stages successfully applied radiation therapy. Surgical treatment inferior radiation with a functional and cosmetic point of view. In case of metastases in the lymph nodes three weeks after completion of radiotherapy primary focus is shown surgical removal of tissue, fascia and lymph nodes of the upper section of the neck, popodrobnei and both submandibular areas.