Gymnastics

  • Gymnastics for children
  • Gymnastics - system specially selected physical exercises; one of the main means of physical culture. Gymnastics has a number of features which Distinguish it from other types of exercise. Selection of exercises allows you to selectively act on individual muscle groups. By changing the number of repetitions of exercises, rate, amplitude of movements, original position possible exact dosage physiological effects of gymnastics on the body according to sex, age and state of health of the student. Application in gymnastics dismembered (analytical) movements contributing to the mastering of complex combinations of exercises and motor skills. Selectivity-impact exercise and precise dosage doing gymnastics primary means and medical physical culture.
    Gymnastic exercises are divided into front, General developing, applied exercises with objects (clubs, sticks, and other) and on gymnastic apparatus (horizontal bar, parallel bars, rings, balance beam, a horse). Gymnastic exercises improve the function of the nervous system, develop muscle strength.
    In the Soviet system of physical education gymnastics, games, sports, making up a single whole, promote all-round physical development. Depending on the objectives, content and methodology there are several varieties of gymnastics.
    The main gymnastics - the most mass kind of gymnastics, have as their primary objective the overall physical development and health promotion, mastering basic motor skills. It includes a variety of exercise: walking, running, jumping, climbing, exercises with shells and shells and other (Fig. 1-6). The main gymnastics used since early childhood, she is one of the main tools of physical education of children in preschool and school; it is also widely used in the practice of General physical training with budding athletes and to the health of people of elderly age. Special attention in the main gymnastics is paid to teaching breathing - rhythmic, deep, combined with the running movements (for example, breath - for extension of the trunk and extremities, exhale when they bend; at the big muscular effort, as a rule, exhale, and so on).
    Auxiliary gymnastics - specially selected exercises used as adjuvant sports training, physical training, training of professional motor skills and other auxiliary gymnastics is also therapeutic exercises (see Therapeutic physical culture) and its variant, corrective gymnastics - specific exercises to correct deformities of spinal column and violations of correct posture of children. Exercises are selected mainly with the calculation of forming the spine in the opposite direction of his pathological curvature (Fig. 7-12). Corrective exercises in the preventive purposes may be included also in charge and classes in physical education in kindergartens and schools.
    Industrial gymnastics complex 6-7 simple exercises conducted periodically during the working day for the preservation of health and health (Fig. 13-43). Fitness pause held during the working day, help maintain health by enhancing blood circulation, inclusion into the state of the muscles, not working at industrial processes, and muscle relaxation, carrying a big load. The duration of the production gymnastics - 4-6 minutes; during the working day it may recur.
    Introductory exercises before you begin helps speedy entry into the rhythm of work.
    Gymnastics is characterized by high complexity of the exercise, which requires good physical training and high coordination. There are actually gymnastics (free exercises, exercises on gymnastic apparatus) (Fig. 44-51), acrobatics (acrobatic jumps, exercises in "balancing") (Fig. 52-55), and rhythmic gymnastics. The last type of gymnastics has a special meaning in the aesthetic and physical education of women (Fig. 56-58). Sports gymnastics associated with strenuous exercise and heavy load, especially in the competitions. So when doing gymnastics compulsory medical supervision (see). To start lessons gymnastics may 6-7 years of age, acrobatics and gymnastics - with 4-5 years.
    Great importance of sanitary and hygienic conditions for gymnastics; systematic medical supervision established sanitary regulations of contents gymnastic halls, equipment and tools (see Sports facilities).
    When exercising and especially when performing exercises on the shells, special attention should be given to the respect of all measures of prevention (sequence of training, proper state of shells and mats, "insurance" when performing a complex of exercises and others).
    gymnastics in pictures

    Fig. The main gymnastics (1-6): 1 and 2 - exercises with the ball; 3 and 4 - rope climbing; 5 and 6 of the exercise in balance. Auxiliary (medical) gymnastics (7-12): 7 and 8 - exercises in kyphosis; 9 and 10 exercises for lordosis; 11 and 12 exercises for scoliosis. Industrial gymnastics (13-43): sample exercises. Gymnastics (44-58): 44-46 - exercises on the bar; 47 and 48 of the exercises on the rings, 49-51 - anchor jumps; 52 and 53 - "somersault"; 54 and 55 - exercises in "balance"; 56-58 - rhythmic gymnastics.