Hygienic characteristics of production microclimate

On the microclimate of industrial premises is greatly influenced by the technological process. Almost all production premises is divided by the cold, have normal temperature, and hot. At low temperature is working in refrigerators, elevators, warehouses. To the hot areas are open-hearth furnace, rolling, casting workshops and other
Technological process can have an impact on humidity of air of industrial premises. Sources of increasing air humidity are dyeing and washing machines, galvanic baths. They can raise the humidity of up to
80-90%.
Rarely in manufacturing plants have to meet with lower humidity (20-25%). This air causes an unpleasant feeling of dryness of mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract.
The heated surface in hot shops can cause air flow directed upwards, and protekaniya in their place more than cold air. This air movement can create drafts. Hot workshops also possible effect of thermal radiation (infrared).
Adverse effect of the working environment is most evident in the violation of thermoregulation processes, functions of various organs and systems.
Despite considerable fluctuations of temperature, humidity and movement of air in industrial conditions, the body copes with them due to the adaptability of heat regulation system.
However, prolonged exposure to particularly adverse microclimate thermoregulation of the body's ability insufficient, the thermal balance is disturbed, there are deep changes in the condition of the body.
High air temperature in combination with heat radiation and physical stress affects the cardiovascular system, water-salt metabolism, respiration. There is a drop in blood pressure, blood clots. Then together with the body loses a significant amount of salt.
To interventions for the fight against overheating of the body include the mechanization of hard work, protection against radiation sources, ventilation, personal prevention. Mechanization of labour-intensive works, facilitating labour, reduces heat generation in the organism.
For removal of the heated air is used organised aeration; to prevent overheating of the body arrange air shower - air flow is directed directly on the desktop (Fig. 29). Reduction of heat radiation shielding is achieved heat radiating surfaces of various insulating materials (asbestos, cellular glass), the use of water curtains (Fig. 30).


Fig. 29. The scheme otdavaema ventilation (air shower) in the foundry.

Fig. 30. Water curtain before opening the oven for protection against radiation.

For regulation of water-salt exchange used for drinking salted (0,5%) carbonated water.
Measures of personal prophylaxis include short breaks in the work carried out in the cabins with water cooling (Fig. 31), the rational use of protective clothing and footwear.


Fig. 31. Cabin with water cooling.

To prevent hypothermia organism use local device radiant heating permanent jobs, a special room for the heating; working supplied with overalls, boots, mittens from maloteploprovodny materials.