Hygienic characteristics of air from the point of view of dust and bacterial pollution

Along with different gaseous admixtures in the air are dust and microorganisms. Dust can form when the weathering of rocks, soil particles, fuel combustion, as a result of various production processes. The content of dust in the air, largely due to meteorological conditions (temperature, air flow, humidity).
The dust content of atmospheric air depends on a degree of an accomplishment and sanitary maintenance of settlements. The dust content of premises depends on their purity, method of harvesting and other
The dust contained in the air, different size particles (dispersion), structure, chemical properties and other
Prolonged inhalation of industrial dust can cause a disease of the upper respiratory tract (bronchitis). With significant admixture of silicon dust develop sclerotic changes in the lung tissue (silicosis). Most often these diseases occur from working in coal mines, in dusty shops. Some authors (N. A. vyhdorchyk, A. G. Karpilovskiy) observed among residents of large cities fibrotic changes in the lungs, reminiscent of the initial stage of professional pneumoconiosis.
It is established that in the composition of the smoke may include carcinogenic, causing the animals in the experiment cancer. Statistical development of the material on the incidence of lung cancer in persons, permanently living in cities with severe air pollution showed that 90% of lung cancer patients for a long time lived in the industrial centers. Thus, the dust contained in the air that can cause various diseases.
In addition to direct effects on the body, dust and has indirect influence on health of the population. On the dust particles are deposited beads of moisture, resulting in fogs. Dust and fog, absorbing much of the solar radiation, worsen light climate of settlements. Moreover, the dust particles absorb most of the short-wave ultraviolet rays. A thin layer of dust and soot, settling on the outer surface of the glass in the Windows of buildings, degrades the natural lighting of dwellings.
In the atmospheric air along with dust and smoke may contain bacteria. Between dust content air and content of microorganisms there is a direct dependence. Therefore, the greatest microbial pollution is observed in the major cities.
Organisms into the air by coughing, sneezing, talking, and the droplets of saliva. Research has shown that the smallest droplets splashing person may travel considerable distance and 5-6 hours to be suspended. So when sneezing, coughing, you should close your nose and mouth with a handkerchief.
Most microorganisms in the air are saprophytes, pathogenic microorganisms are rare. Therefore, almost human infection by inhalation of atmospheric air is not possible.
More pathogenic microflora is detected in the air in enclosed rooms, especially of infectious hospitals and purulent surgical departments. In such premises infection is possible infections transmitted by airborne droplets (influenza, whooping cough, measles and other).
To prevent bacterial contamination of air in residential and public premises to be correct and sufficient air exchange, wet cleaning and disinfection of air by chemical preparations (propylene glycol, triethylene glycol), irradiation bactericidal lamps (PDR-30).
For air disinfection should include ultraviolet lamps for 30-40 minutes at intervals of 2-3 h during cleaning, heavy traffic of people.
The lamp must be positioned so that they had no direct effect on people's eyes.
Disinfection of air in operating, dressing significantly reduces the number of postoperative suppurations.