Hygienic characteristics of harmful impurities in the air

In addition to these gases included in the atmospheric air, it can contain different additives: poisonous gases - carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dust, soot, smoke, bacteria. The most polluted air in large industrial centers.
The main sources of atmospheric air pollution are industrial enterprises (CO, SO2, H2S and other), boilers, CHP (dust, smoke, SO2, and others), rail, road transport, soil, especially in the imperfection of the outdoor coatings (dust, microbes).
Contaminants in the atmospheric air adversely affect the health of the population.
Sulphur dioxide is a colourless, with the pungent smell of gas. It is found in the air of populated areas and major cities. The main source of pollution of atmospheric air sulfurous gas are sulfuric acid and iron and steel industry, coal burning in the furnaces of power plants, enterprises and other
As a rule, in the air of the cities of the content of sulfur dioxide slightly, however, prolonged inhalation of the air, even with minimal concentrations it is not indifferent for an organism. Sulphur dioxide has a local irritating effect on the mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract and causes conjunctivitis, bronchitis; in addition, it has a total of harmful effect on the body.
Sulphur dioxide is a poison for many plants, especially pine and fruit trees.
Thus, pollution of atmospheric air sulfurous gas with a hygienic point of view is harmful. In order to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide replace (if possible) mnogoserijnyj coal coal with a lower sulphur content, produced abatement and other Maximum permissible concentration of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere (daily average) 0.15 mg/m3.
Carbon monoxide gas is colorless and odorless. Formed in industrial processes (blast furnace, foundry shops), during operation of vehicles, and in homes by the incomplete combustion of organic compounds containing carbon, Smoking and so on
Carbon monoxide has a higher affinity for hemoglobin, which 200-300 times the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. When carbon monoxide poisoning in the tissues occurs oxygen starvation.
The concentration of carbon monoxide in ambient air is usually not high enough to cause acute poisoning, but the constant exposure to even low concentrations unfavourable for health.
Studies of pathologists determined that the regulators traffic in places of the big congestion of vehicles after an 8-hour stay at the post of the blood has the carboxyhemoglobin, which results in headaches and General malaise.
In residential and public premises monoxide can do for early closing of the chimneys; in gazofitsirovan buildings, it can accumulate in poor ventilation, careless use of gas.
Significant concentrations of carbon monoxide are detected in a cab, when a machine is long standing with the engine.
All the above causes the need for appropriate measures to prevent receipt of carbon monoxide in ambient air.
To reduce the pollution of atmospheric air of cities carbon monoxide, you can use a special device "and the exhaust pipe of a car for post-combustion gases. Effective event is the translation of motor transport on liquefied gas and electric motors, air device viaducts, construction of ring roads around the cities.
Maximum permissible daily average concentration of carbon monoxide to the atmosphere 1 mg/m3.
Besides these gases atmospheric air can be polluted with nitrogen oxides, chlorine and others who also are irritating to the upper respiratory tract. Lead and fluorine, polluting the atmosphere, gradually accumulate in the body and have chronic adverse effects.