Planning of health

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The health plans, like all economic plans of the USSR, are directives that are mandatory for all departments and organizations implementing these plans.
In the economic plans of the USSR reflected, in particular, the following tasks: to further the welfare of the Soviet people, to improve their conditions of work and life, to promote education and culture. These targets of the plan and have great socio-hygienic importance as provide for the improvement of the environmental conditions of work and life, the rise of the level of sanitary culture, improving public health, reducing morbidity and mortality.
Planning of health includes and covers a coordinated set of topics: the network of health care institutions; the need for medical personnel and their training; the number of employees and wages; capital construction of facilities; equipment of medical equipment, materials, clothes, soft inventory; the health budget.
In the planning of health applies a system of payments, which reflect numerous forms and links between sections of the plan and branches of medical support. So, for example, development of a network of institutions depends on how it is ensured by investments, material supplies, budget allocations, and so on, the Plan also provides for specific tasks and directions of development of medical and sanitary-epidemiological security of the population and its separate contingents (industrial workers, women, young children, school children, adolescents, the elderly).
The most important challenges facing the health authorities in 1966-1970, in accordance with the decisions of the XXIII Congress of the CPSU, the following: reduction of morbidity and mortality (see), especially among children; the elimination and reduction of infectious diseases; full improving the quality of health care and the convergence of the level of medical care urban and rural population; improvement of the medical science and the work of the scientific staff; further improvement of the quality of training higher and secondary medical personnel and their specialization and advanced training, placement and use; technical perfection and improvement of material-technical base of the health system; improvement of sanitary supervision conditions of work and life of the population.
The national economic plans are divided into territorial (Union republics, oblasts, cities and districts) and sectoral or departmental (health, education, private industry, and so on up institutions, enterprises).
Accordingly, the proposed terms of the plans are divided into perspective (long-term), such as five years, and current, or annual plans. Five-year and annual territorial and sectoral planning for health by the agencies and relevant health authorities and planners on the basis established by Gosplan check digits.
The plan is expressed in specific figures, depending on its level: the closer to the individual institution, the wider is the range of indicators (the number of hospital beds, the number of medical posts and so on).
In plans of the Union and Autonomous republics, oblasts, regions and cities, the greatest importance is attached to development of specialized outpatient and inpatient care (therapy, surgery, Pediatrics, and so on), local services, maintenance of separate population groups (adults, women, children, industrial workers, and so on), training, specialization, improvement and arrangement of medical personnel.
Planning of health consists of a preparatory stage, plan and monitor its implementation. Work on promising or annual plan starts with the development of source materials on the state of the provision of health care, the state of the network of health care institutions and their activities (see Hospitals, policlinics, outpatient Department, Sanitary and epidemiological station), the existence, placement and usage of medical personnel about the current levels of security they etc.
Based P. C. are scientifically developed demographic and sanitary-hygienic criteria (see Sanitary statistics), the quantity and quality of medical services, technical and economic calculations. Such expert materials are the result of a comprehensive needs analysis, the degree of satisfaction of these needs, resources and patterns of health care development at each stage of socialist development. Forecast sanitary-demographic processes (population growth, changes in its age and sex structure, population distribution between urban and rural areas, the nature of settlement in the territory, the level and nature of morbidity and so on) is an essential prerequisite for substantiation of strategic health plan.
Of great importance in P. C., and to describe the state of medical support are the standards of health care, primarily the provision of public hospital beds, medical personnel, medicines; security institutions with special equipment, transportation means; performance of medical and service personnel (staff regulations), the material base (the number of beds, equipment and so on). Standards of health, with the exception of hygienic norms, may be optimal or settlement (limited established). The calculated standards approved by the USSR Ministry of health.
The existing regulations for provision of medical assistance are approximate calculation, they Orient national and local health authorities in the preparation of their perspective and annual plans of development of public health. In the Union and Autonomous republics, territories, regions, cities and districts of the need for outpatient and inpatient care may significantly differ from accepted the national average standards. For example, if the USSR normal standard of outpatient care in the cities - 9-10 visits one inhabitant in a year, when drawing up the development plan of outpatient care in a separate area should be adjusted average ratio, taking into account material and financial opportunities, and also opportunities of personnel provision. This indicator needs in outpatient care for a separate specialty depends on the level of use (incidence), the repetition factor (number of visits in the medical purposes per one primary treatment), visits related to the clinical examination of patients with certain forms of diseases and visits for preventive maintenance.
The need for hospital bed Fund is directly proportional to the level of use, the amount of selection on the bed, the average number of days of stay of the patient in hospital and inversely proportional to the average number of days of use berths in the year. The standard of the need for hospital beds on the total number and by separate specialized types of assistance can be defined by the formula:
where It is required annual average number of beds per 1,000 population; And the level of use (incidence) per 1,000 population; R is the percentage of selection on the bunk on the number of applicants; P is the average number of days of stay of the patient in hospital; (D - is the average number of days of use berths in the year. The application of this formula can be demonstrated on calculation of the number of beds in the obstetric Department (maternity hospitals). If, suppose, per 1000 inhabitants per year 25 childbirth and postpartum women on average spends in hospital 11 days, the average annual bed occupancy 300 days a need in the maternity hospital beds will be expressed as follows:
that is 0,9 beds per 1000 population, taking into account the pathology of pregnancy and childbirth.
Such tentative regulations are put in a basis of planning clinics (polyclinics). Chief physician, make a plan, and should take into account the sanitary condition of the service area, reporting data on activities of the hospital (clinic) in previous years; to analyze the progress of the plan of the current year and to be guided on the upcoming plan year objectives with regard to financial and material possibilities and opportunities staffing (if need be).
Of particular importance are the integrated plans of the fight against certain diseases (tuberculosis, malaria and others), which together with measures of health authorities with activities of other agencies and organizations (housing and utilities, trade Union and other).


Planning of health care in the USSR - the development of certain terms of the complex of interrelated measures on medical care aimed at prevention and elimination of diseases, reducing mortality, improvement of physical development, increase of working capacity and longevity of the people.
According to article 11 of the Constitution of the USSR "the Economic life of the USSR determined and directed the state economic plan for the increase of social wealth, the steady rise of material and cultural level of the workers, strengthen the independence of the USSR and strengthen its defense capability".
As part of the national economic plan, health plan associated with it unity of the set tasks. Primary development of those or other leading sectors of the national economy usually requires priority development of a network of medical institutions, construction of hospitals, provision of medical personnel and of other activities of health care of the population employed in these industries, which gets reflected in health.
Planning of national economy of the USSR is based on the law of planned, proportionate development of the economy, on which the development of all sectors of the economy must comply with the single planned guidance of the state, and between all the parts and elements of the national economy must be observed proportionality.
Planning of health care is determined by the same laws that underlie the planning of the entire national economy. Consequently, the health plan must be in the right, proportionally with the plans of other sectors of the national economy. In terms of health must also observe the correct proportions between the individual sections between curative care and sanitary-anti-epidemic service, inpatient and outpatient assistance, assistance in the polyclinic and at home, various kinds of specialized care, etc.
Health care plan is a complex, balanced and independent from each other parameters that determine the objectives of the plan and the amount of funds that ensure its execution. The main targets, determining the direction and content of the plan of health, are the issues of prevention of disease, further reduction and the elimination of mass diseases, improving the quality of medical care through the development of specialized care. The development of a network of medical institutions is provided in the plan of capital investments for new construction or adapt for this purpose buildings transferred to public health authorities; the financial means provided for in the budget; the number of employees and salary Fund; the availability and production of relevant materials and equipment.
Health care plan is based on the directives of the Party and Government. Child health authorities in the preparation of the plan guided by the instructions of their superior bodies. The main policy documents are the Program of the CPSU adopted by the XXII Congress of the Party, decisions of the congresses and plenums of the Communist party, decisions of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on health issues.
When planning health on the five-year period (1971-1975) main role is played by the decree of the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers dated 5 July 1968 № 517 and decisions of the XXIV Congress of the CPSU, which defines the tasks on development of the specialized aid to the population and strengthening of material base of public health, which is the basis to further improve the quality of medical care.
When planning health authorities should also be guided by the instructions of higher bodies of health; to consider the health indicators of population morbidity by main disease, mortality, socio-economic and living conditions of life of the population, population size and its age-sexual structure.