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Mental health care

Specialized mental health care presents a hospital (inpatient and outpatient care. Inpatient psychiatric care plays an important role in the treatment of the mentally ill. In different countries the number of psychiatric beds varies from 0.2 to 6 per 1,000 population. The lowest number of beds available in developing countries. Recently, in connection with the General tendency to treat patients without isolation from their families and society reduced the number of psychiatric beds in countries where the level was high. According to experts who, 1 -1,5 beds per 1,000 population, with a well organized system of outpatient care is considered sufficient. In our country in 1975 was 312,6 thousand psychiatric beds, which was 1.2 beds per 1,000 population. However, the provision of psychiatric beds presents unevenly: in large cities - from 2 and more, in rural areas - 1 or less per 1,000 population. The number of psychiatric beds in our country is relatively small, as in earlier periods, there were less. However, the presence of a developed outpatient psychiatric care helped with the number of psychiatric beds to provide the necessary medical and preventive care for the mentally ill. Hospital mental health care in our country is differentiated depending on the category of patients. There are hospitals for treating patients with severe mental disorders and for patients with borderline disorders, Department for mentally ill children! teen and older ages. In addition, psychiatric hospitals can be in mental hospitals and General hospitals. Each psychiatric hospital, a psychiatric hospital in mental hospitals or General hospital have their areas of service, i.e. there for hospital treatment are directed, as a rule, patients from certain areas. This territorial principle of service provides continuity in realization of treatment and preventive work with patients.
Recently established hospitals for the treatment of persons suffering from chronic alcoholism. In conditions of such profilirovannyh hospitals can more effectively carry out medical and rehabilitation work with these patients.
At construction of new psychiatric hospitals great attention is paid to the architectural design, planning of offices and other premises. The chamber is calculated on a small number of patients. Provides additional facilities: Lounges for patients, sports halls, rooms for kulturayi etc. of the staff quarters are located so that the staff could constantly watch for the sick. In modern hospital psychiatric care is clearly presents a tendency to bring it closer to the practice of pediatric hospitals. In a number of psychiatric hospitals, departments are moving to a system of open doors when staying mentally ill in hospital regulated by the provisions for somatic hospitals.
The creation of a psychiatric hospitals on the basis of General hospitals brings psychiatric hospital care in General health. However, mental health care, as well as other specialized medical services, has its salient features. Therefore, this path of development of hospital psychiatric care is unlikely to occupy a leading position.
The founders of Soviet psychiatry constantly stressed the need for approximation of psychiatric care to the population. One of the first forms of outpatient mental health care can be considered a system of family psychiatric nursing.
In Russia for the first time the idea of family patronage was suggested at the first Congress of Russian psychiatrists in 1887 S. S. Korsakov and the creation of various forms of outpatient mental health care in the first years of Soviet power were extremely important achievement of psychiatry.
When family patronage of the patient was left in his family or placed in another family with her consent, or on medical grounds, providing from the hospital medical care and cash benefits. Patronage was appointed to chronically ill patients in a state of remission and who need care and supervision. Patronage brought psychiatric assistance to the population, allowed convalescent patients go to their usual occupation or find a job, being under the supervision of a physician.