Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. If mikrogematuria the presence of red blood cells in urine only detect with a microscope, when macrohematuria urine takes the color of the meat slops. The makrogematuriya to be distinguished from hemoglobinuriaobserved in diseases of the blood, severe burns, transfusion of blood incompatible. In such cases in the study are painted in red color of urine red blood cells do not find.
Hematuria is the initial (start), when the blood when trekhsloynoy the sample contains only the first portion of urine, the terminal (final), when the blood is contained only in the last portion of the urine, and total (full), when all three portions of urine stained with blood. Initial hematuria is a sign of the pathological process (trauma, polyps, papillary cancer, severe gonorrhea and syphilis) in the peripheral part of the urethra.
Terminal hematuria occurs with pathological changes in the rear part of the urethra, inflammation of the bladder neck, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, in cancer and, more rarely, an adenoma prostate cancer, tumors of the bladder neck. If the pathological process is localized above - in the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis and in the parenchyma of the kidney - hematuria is in the nature of the total. Total hematuria may indicate the presence of cancer or tuberculosis of kidneys, cystic degeneration of her, pyelonephritis, kidney stones, necrosis of renal papillae, papillary cancer pelvis or ureter, bladder tumors, hemorrhagic cystitis, simple ulcer or bladder stones, prostate cancer, endometriosis, the schistosomiasis (bilharzia) and other
Nephrolithiasis hematuria often occurs after enhanced flow or attack of renal colic. When tumors and tuberculosis of urinary system suddenly occurs makrogematuriya. When the obstruction of the lumen of the ureter blood clot hematuria may be terminated. Macro - and microhematuria without clots in combination with swelling of the face and legs and high blood pressure is a result of diffuse (acute or chronic) or focal jade. The presence in urine long, worm-like clots of blood is a sign of bleeding from kidney or renal pelvis.
Formless blood clots in the urine when there dysuria indicate bleeding in the bladder.
Hematuria occurs when scurvy, thrombocytopenic purple and others may develop as a complication wrong treatment antikoagulyantami (dikumarina, heparin). The term " essential hematuria" unite forms hematuria unclear etiology. Hematuria is a terrible symptom requiring in all cases, a careful examination of the patient. To determine the cause hematuria, as a rule, hemostatic therapy cannot be assigned.