Hemolysis

Hemolysis (synonym: hematosis, erythrocytosis) is the process of damage red blood cells, in which the hemoglobin out of them into the environment. Blood or suspension of erythrocytes becomes transparent red liquid (lacquer blood). The hemolysis can occur in the blood (intravascular hemolysis) or in cells reticulohistiocytosis system (intracellular hemolysis). In norm observed intracellular hemolysis: part of erythrocytes daily destroyed, primarily in the spleen, and the vacant hemoglobin turns into bilirubin. In pathological hemolysis the increased destruction of red blood cells, increased bilirubin production and highlighting it with the bileand the allocation of urobilinogen bodies with faeces and urine. If hemoglobin is released a lot and reticulohistiocytosis system does not cope with its processing, there are hemoglobinemia and the hemoglobinuria. The destruction of red blood cells in the blood stream passes in two stages: chromolith - release of hemoglobin and stamolis - destruction stroma. The direct consequence of hemolysis is anemia.
Causes of hemolysis diverse. To the physical factors of his calling, include the effect of temperature, radiant energy, ultrasound , etc. of Chemical factors causing hemolysis, numerous; in human pathology are set hemolytic poisons. A number of microbes and parasites in the blood can cause hemolysis, hemolytic Streptococcus, wand gas gangrene, Plasmodium malaria and other). Cause hemolysis may be congenital or acquired deficiency of red blood cells, immune autoaggressive processes and others (see Hemolytic anemia). Intravascular hemolysis is also due to complications caused by transfusion of blood incompatible.

Hemolysis is called the destruction of the membranes of red blood cells, accompanied by the release of hemoglobin in the blood plasma, which is painted in red and becomes transparent ("painted blood"). Stroma destroyed deprived of hemoglobin red blood cells it forms the so-called "shades of red blood cells".
The destruction of red blood cells can occur in the body and outside it - in vitro - depending on the number of reasons. If the red cells are hypotonic solution, the osmotic pressure inside them is higher than in the surrounding solution, and the water from the solution enters the red blood cells, causing the increase of their size and break the shell. This so-called osmotic hemolysis occurs when the osmotic pressure of the surrounding erythrocytes solution is reduced by half compared to normal. When a small hypotension salt solution, which contains red blood cells, they are not destroyed, but only swell and some increase in size.
The concentration of NaCl in the surrounding cell solution, which begins hemolysis, is a measure of the so-called osmotic resistance (resistance) of erythrocytes. A person hemolysis begins 0.4% solution NaCl, and in 0,34% solution of all red blood cells are destroyed. In various pathological conditions osmotic resistance of erythrocytes can be reduced and full hemolysis can occur and at high concentrations of NaCl solution.
The hemolysis can occur under the influence of some chemical compounds. Thus, it is called solvents lipoid - ether, chloroform, benzene, alcohol, destructive (with a large concentration) membrane of erythrocytes. Hemolysis also cause bile acids, saponins, pyragollole and some other substances.
The destruction of red blood cells can occur outside of the body under the influence of strong mechanical influences, such as by shaking the vial of blood. Hemolysis also cause repeated freezing and thawing of blood.
The hemolysis can occur in the organism under the influence of some poison of serpents, and also at action of special substances - hemolysins, plasma-formed as a result of repeated injections in the blood of the animal's red blood cells of other animals. The hemolysins different species specificity; they act on the erythrocytes only that species of animal, whose blood was brought into the body. So, serum normal rabbit poorly homalisidae the sheep erythrocytes. After several injections in the blood rabbit sheep red blood cells, serum rabbit breeding her even dozens of times homalisidae these red blood cells.