Hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia (synonym: hemolytic jaundice, Faurecia jaundice) group of diseases characterized by increased destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis).
The hemolysis can be caused by deficiency of red blood cells usually congenital character, and Neitralnyi factors mainly acquired character. Common to all forms of hemolytic anemia symptoms may be due either to an increased hemolysis (increase the concentration in the blood indirect fraction of bilirubin, increased allocation stercobilin with faeces and urobilinogen pH of the urine, sometimes hemoglobinemia and the hemoglobinuria)or enhanced regeneration of red blood cells (increase in the number of reticulocytes, polychromasia erythrocytes, erythroblasts blood and bone marrow). When erythrocyte destruction prevails over their recovery takes anemia.
To hemolytic anemia associated with changes of erythrocytes, are family hemolytic anemia Minkowski - daffara, balalaechka hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinase and disease Marchiafava - Micheli.
Family hemolytic anemia Minkowski - soffera - a hereditary disease, which occurs mainly in children, sometimes later. The main clinical symptoms: mild yellow and pale skin, weakness, shortness of breath, sometimes sharply coming hemolytic crises with pain in the pancreas and biliary colic. Children have developmental delay. In the survey find a moderate anemia, signs of hemolysis and regeneration of red blood cells (reticulocytes 10-20% and more)and spherocytosis (reduced diameter, thickness increase of red blood cells) and lowering their osmotic resistance. Kumbsa reaction (see) is negative. The spleen is slightly increased. To determine the cause of jeltushnosti only allow a thorough examination of the patient and the detection of these signs of disease in other family members. Medication is ineffective. In sharp anemia shown transfusion (under medical supervision). Certainly effectively remove the spleen.
Close to family hemolytic anemia hereditary nature and clinical manifestations balalaechka hemolytic anemia, different from the first predominantly light, often latent period. Most of erythrocytes (50% and more) is oval in shape and has a high osmotic resistance.
Hemoglobinase - hereditary diseases associated with changes in the molecules of hemoglobin. The main of them are sickle cell anemia, which occurs in blacks some regions of Africa and America, and thalassemia (see), popular mainly in the Mediterranean countries.
When illness of Marchiafava - Micheli (paroxysmal nocturnal Blackwater fever) is intravascular hemolysis with constant hemosiderinuria and sometimes coming night hemolytic crises with hemoglobinuria (see).
To congenital hemolytic anemia include hemolytic disease of the newborn (see).
Hemolytic anemia intact red blood cells, usually acquired. They can be caused by hemolytic poisons, radiation sickness, severe burns, parasites, infections and autoimmune mechanisms. In the latter case, the erythrocytes under the influence of infectious, drug and other agents become like alien own organism, which produces against them gemoliticaskie antibodies (Coombs test is positive). From therapeutic measures the most important thing is to eliminate the causative factor, if known; transfusion blood with a special selection of the donor (for the purposes and under the supervision of a doctor), corticosteroid therapy (by a physician) and restorative treatment.