Hemorrhagic diathesis

Hemorrhagic diathesis is a group of diseases, clinical form of increased krovotochivostyu.
Identified a large number of factors, among which some provide normal blood clotting and stop the bleeding caused by damage to blood vessels, others act against and prevent intravascular coagulation. Violation of this physiological balance of coagulation and anticoagulation systems of blood can lead to bleeding. Besides the disorder of blood clotting, bleeding may be due to the qualitative or quantitative deficiency of platelets or defeat the vascular wall. Depending on the factors that cause the disease, hemorrhagic diathesis divided into three groups: 1) hemophilia, pregematria; afibrinogenemia, fibrinolytic purpura; 2) thrombocytopenic purpura (see), a disease of Glanzmann and von Willebrand's disease; 3) hemorrhagic vasculitis (see), scurvy (see), a disease of Randy - Osler. Bloody diates can be congenital (and manifest family) or acquired. Among the purchased emit secondary forms that arise under the influence of different factors (infection, lack of vitamins C, K, B12, folic acid, hormonal changes, and so on).
The main symptom of the clinical picture hemorrhagic diathesis is bleeding, the degree of which varies from minor subcutaneous hemorrhages to massive bleeding. For the diagnosis of hemorrhagic diathesis great importance age and gender, communication hemorrhage and bleeding from trauma, acute respiratory illness, location subcutaneous hemorrhages, their form, color, the presence or absence of intramuscular bruising, bleeding from the mucous membranes, bleeding into joints and other Clinical diagnosis strengthen laboratory data. Determine the number of platelets, clotting time, bleeding and blood clot retraction, the degree of resistance and fragility of capillaries (vascular sample, for example a symptom of a harness), make coagulation tests (see blood Clotting), tromboelastogramma (see Thromboelastography).
Prognosis and treatment depend on the form of hemorrhagic diathesis. The lack of any coagulation factor spend substitution treatment (e.g. transfusion); lack of education platelets can be stimulated glucocorticoid hormones. These hormones have a good effect at high activity of anticoagulative system, and also at immunoallergical haemorrhagic diathesis. A special place among hemorrhagic diathesis is hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. The most significant factors violations hemostasis in newborns are protracted childbirth, lack of oxygen in the fetus, diseases and intoxication mother in the last months of pregnancy, and also reception by it of certain drugs (for example, sleeping pills). The main cause coagulation disorders in newborns, particularly in premature infants, is insufficient intake of vitamin To the growing fetus with inadequate diet, the use of laxatives (alkaloid compounds, mineral oils), by liver damage pregnant. In addition, newborn and especially premature child is predisposed to the disease haemorrhagic diathesis, due to lack of bacterial flora in the intestine, required for the synthesis of vitamin K and functional imperfections liver is the organ that produces many of the coagulation factors (prothrombin, fibrinogen , and so on). Symptoms of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn usually appear on 2-3-day life. The most frequent of them bleeding from the digestive tract (melena, and hematemesis), from umbilical wound, mucous membrane chair, and urinary tract. Sometimes there is bleeding into the pleural cavity, bleeding in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Especially dangerous bleeding in the brain, liver , and adrenal glands. The main means of prevention and treatment of this disease is vitamin K. In the preventive purposes vitamin To appoint women in the dose of 15 mg 2 times a day for two weeks before the birth (not more than three days). Newborns drugs are in the first day of bleeding in a dose of 1 mg 2 times a day not more than three days. In the case of severe symptoms of hemorrhagic diathesis transfusion of fresh blood.