Chemical industry

Chemical industry - a sector of the economy that produce chemicals for all types of industry and agriculture. It consists of a production - basic chemistry, mining, chemicals, petrochemicals, pesticides, synthetic resins and plastics, synthetic rubber, chemical fibers, paints, aniline dye, chemical-pharmaceutical, chemical reagents and especially pure chemical substances.
Working in the chemical industry in contact with various chemicals, most of which has more or less toxicity. Once in the body in the form of vapour, gases, Aero - and hydrosols through the respiratory tract, through the intact skin, rarely through the digestive tract, they can cause acute or chronic occupational poisoning, to weaken the resistance of the body. A number of chemicals causes burns. The simultaneous presence of other factors, adverse weather conditions, noise, physical stress increases the impact of chemical industrial poisons.
The problem of health in the chemical industry - to ensure optimal working conditions, prevent professional poisoning, to prevent harmful impact of chemical substances on the population living near chemical plants.
Chemical production is to be separated from the establishments of sanitary-protective area (see), defined by the sanitary norms of planning industrial enterprises (CH 245-71).
Sanitary-hygienic conditions of work in the chemical industry are defined: the peculiarities of the technological process, which may be continuous or periodic; the used equipment and communications; layout of the premises, efficiency ventilation and numerous other conditions.
Technology with the use of continuous processes with remote control (remote control) has advantages over the periodic chart. The most dangerous remain selection process samples, leakage of equipment and packaging of the finished product. Contact working with chemicals can be significant when loading raw materials, overload intermediates, filtration, drying, etc.,
All sources of emissions should be equipped with shelters with local ventilation, air before release to the atmosphere must be cleaned.
Laborious work should be mechanized. Require special attention repair work.
Great importance is the rational layout of work space - insulation more harmful processes to prevent the entry of air pollution in areas with less polluted, and finishing work space, prevents sorption and desorption of toxic substances in construction materials.
All working premises should be provided with natural light and ventilation, and are equipped with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation. Must be constant monitoring of compliance with maximum allowable concentrations of toxic substances in the air of working premises.
At the enterprises of the chemical industry are equipped with sanitary facilities (see) in accordance with the requirements of construction norms and rules (SNiP P-M 3-68); workers are provided with protective clothing and protective devices.
All the workers coming to the enterprises of the chemical industry, passed the instruction on safetyand persons in contact with toxic substances, are subject to preliminary and periodic to medical examinations.
Working at the enterprises of the chemical industry benefits depending on the harmfulness of employment (shorter working hours, additional leave, medical special meals, treatment in sanatoriums and other).

Chemical industry - a sector of the economy that produces chemical raw materials, chemical products and fertilizers for agriculture. The chemical industry is of great importance in the development of productive forces, in the technical progress the most important branches of industry and in agriculture (to increase productivity and control pests).
Among chemical manufactures the following main groups:
1) production of mineral fertilizers and chemical means of plant protection;
2) production of synthetic resins, plastics and goods made of them; 3) production of various kinds of synthetic rubber and rubber products; 4) production of basic chemistry (sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids and their salts, alkalis, chlorine and others); 5) production of chemical fibers; 6) production of varnishes and paints; 7) Anila-colorful production; 8) production of organic synthesis products; 9) the products used as fuel jet engines; 10) production of nitro - and aminocoumarins benzene (which are mainly used as explosives substances).
Chemical essentially are many production chemical-pharmaceutical industry, coke-chemistry, Dendrochemistry and other
The development of the chemical industry, its technological progress associated with implementation of new technological processes, a large number of new chemicals, the use of continuous technological processes, more modern equipment, means of automation, mechanization and other
Conditions of work in the chemical industries are characterized by the influence on the organism is a complex set of professionally-hygienic factors: chemical, dust factor, adverse weather conditions, noise, vibration, ionizing radiation and ultrasound. But with all the variety of the production environment dominant role in hygienic assessment of working conditions retains chemical factor. In the chemical industries of chemical pollution are not only in the work premises, but also in building materials boxes of industrial buildings, equipment and other Chemical pollution of air (in gaseous, vaporous and aerosol state) business premises are usually a complex character, i.e. in the air at the same time is a few chemicals. Level, the concentration of these pollutants is very dynamic, mainly due to the production stages, conduction of individual work operations and other
The sources of chemical pollution in the air environment are mainly machines and communication, then waste, raw materials and other goods Receipt of chemical substances in the air of working premises associated with leakage of equipment, the discontinuity of the technological process, violations of its regulations, performing manual operations (loading devices, measurement of level, vor samples), phenomena corrosion and other Capacity of the chemicals act in the air of industrial premises depends on the melting point, boiling point, indicators of volatility and elasticity of their vapors. Quite a lot of chemicals, while in the air, are undergoing significant changes, which leads to changes in their chemical structure and as a consequence to a change in their biological activity. These changes mainly due to the fact that many substances react with oxygen, moisture, carbon dioxide contained in the air. Greatly influenced by sunlight, specifically ultraviolet radiation. Thus observed the phenomenon of hydrolysis, oxidation, polymerization and other Various elements of the production environment and above all the work premises should be subject to regular monitoring. Sanitary-chemical control is carried out by the workers of sanitary-epidemiological stations, factory laboratories and gas rescue stations. Great importance is the application of automatic control methods and Express methods.

Sanitary-chemical control is carried out taking into account the stages, phases of the technological process, operational procedures, and so on, As in the chemical industries toxic contamination enter the body of work not only through the respiratory tract, but also through the skin, sanitary-chemical control is also carried out in respect of chemical contamination of the skin and clothing. The data of sanitary-chemical control allow you to select the most unfavorable for the level of pollution shops, offices, workplaces and to justify the holding of various events aimed at combating chemical pollution of the air environment, skin, clothing, etc.
Technical progress, systematic from year to year a large number of recreational activities has contributed to the reduction of chemical pollution and the improvement of working conditions in the chemical industry. Great importance was the introduction of new, more rational continuous technological processes, pressurized equipment; mechanization of many manual operations; the use of automation, remote control devices, materials resistant to corrosion; rational layout of work space; application materials little absorbing chemicals; the device rational ventilation chemical industry with an extensive use of local exhaust rational shelters dust and gas hazardous equipment.
More significant was the significance of improvement of the air basin of the factory sites of chemical production through the use of installations for cleaning air emissions of tail gases and ventilation air. The considerable role was played by the use rational methods of purification, degassing working premises, use of PPE, and so on Systematic many recreational activities contributed to a significant reduction of acute occupational poisoning and decrease of concentrations of toxic substances in air of industrial premises. For example, significantly reduced the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the flue branches of production of sulphuric acid, chlorine concentrations in the electrolysis shops chlorine production, the concentration of aniline in its production, the concentration of tetraethyl lead in the production of ethyl fluid and tetraethyl lead and other
Workers of all branches of the chemical industry are preliminary and periodic honey. examinations, receive instructing on safety, use various privileges in connection with the work with dangerous toxic substances in accordance with the existing legislation (shortened working day, additional holidays, and treatment-and-prophylactic nutrition, wide use dispensaries, health centers and others). Cm. also aniline-dye industry, chemical Fiber. Coke production, Solvents, Rubber production.