Care for patients with surgical interventions

Care for patients with surgical interventions on the abdominal and chest cavities and neck. In preparing patients for surgery on the organs of abdominal cavity first thing you should correct their food. Food should be easily digestible, most machined. Before the operation the patient takes only liquid food; in the presence of gastric fluid per hour before the operation, content removed from it with the thick probe; prior to surgery, the stomach must be empty. In the evening and early morning of the operation put a cleansing enema, empty the bladder, wash the sick and the bed linen is changed on the eve. Dehydrated and anemic patients for a few days before the operation poured medical fluid and blood solutions. After surgery the patient is immediately transferred to the house, placed in a warm bed with low head; head turned to the side to avoid aspiration of vomitus. Limb sod heaters. In sharp pains used pain relievers. For discharge of gases injected gas discharge tube into the rectum to a depth of 20-30 cm In atony bowel used injection prozerina.
The management of patients after operations on the organs of abdominal cavity has its own characteristics (see Stomach surgery; Postoperative period). The knowledge of the most frequent complications (peritonitis, intestinal obstruction, mantrala, pneumonia, mumps, thrombophlebitis) and preventive measures necessary for care staff.
After heart surgery (see Heart surgery) the patient is under intensive observation. Nurses should carefully monitor the activities of the heart, to know the possible postoperative complications. Chamber for these patients, equipped with the special equipment to monitor patients; emergency care and resuscitation possible events. With proper care is the observance of a positive water balance - correspondence between the amount consumed and the selected fluid. In the first two days of food should be liquid. Drink you can allow already in 1.5 - 2 hours after the operation. When signs of stagnation in the stomach (nausea, the sound of splashing in the abdomen) must be entered in the stomach duodenal probe through the nose. From the third day patients can receive and solid food. On the second day after the operation you need to cleanse the bowels. Almost as a rule, in the cavity of the pleura, sometimes pericardium) for a day left drainage sucking and air (see Drainage). It is necessary to closely monitor the integrity of drainage pipes and her cross to prevent suction of air and compression of the heart and lungs. Turn the patient in bed possible with the help of sisters already in 2-3 hours after surgery.
Before the operation on light (see Light, operations) patients should be trained in the techniques of breathing exercises and clarify the need expectoration of sputum. Half an hour before the operation introduced atropine to prevent discharge of mucus during anesthesia and surgery, aspiratinuyu drainage (see). In the postoperative period, this procedure is repeated. For best sputum discharge the patient should lie on the healthy side. To prevent severe pain and cough, which may lead to the gaping, used analgesics. If the patient after surgery without consciousness, it is necessary often to suck mucus imposed through a tracheostomy, enter razzyzath sputum funds (soda solution, trypsin), it is sometimes necessary artificial respiration. Monitoring of drainage prevents serious complications. The diet of patients should be high-calorie with a large number of vitamins. Within 2 days to give a liquid diet.
Care of patients before and after operations on the neck and the face has features. During the operation on the scalp shave the hair on one or another site, sometimes the hair is removed completely.
Before the operation on the thyroid gland, especially when events expressed tireotoxicozarequires the use of sedatives. In some cases, after the operation it is necessary to establish individual post, to detect symptoms of possible postoperative complications: convulsions (see Tetany), changes in cardiovascular activities, the change in the voice. Particular care - see the Thyroid gland (operations).